Producer Price Index Manual : Theory and Practice

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
September 2004
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      Yoskowitz, D.W., 2002, “Price Dispersion and Price Discrimination: Empirical Evidence from a Spot Market for Water,”Review of Industrial Organization, Vol. 20, pp. 28389.

      Young, Arthur, 1812, An Inquiry into the Progressive Value of Money in England as Marked by the Price of Agricultural Products, London.

      Yule, G.U., 1921, “Discussion of Mr. Flux’s Paper,”Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 84, pp. 199202.

      Zarnowitz, V., 1961, “Index Numbers and the Seasonality of Quantities and Prices,” in The Price Statistics of the Federal Government, ed. by G.J.Stigler (ed) (New York: National Bureau of Economic Research), pp. 233–304.

      Zieschang, KimberlyD., 1988, “The Characteristics Approach to the Problem of New and Disappearing Goods in Price Indexes,”BLS Working Paper 183 (Washington: Bureau of Labor Statistics).

    Index

    References are to chapter and paragraph or appendix numbers (not to pages). The notation (g) indicates an entry in the glossary or glossary appendix; a (t), (f), or (b) appended to paragraph numbers indicates a table, figure, or box adjoining relevant text; addition of “*” (for example, (t*)) indicates that the table, etc., is located immediately after, but is not relevant to, that paragraph (the paragraph number is merely a locator).

    • ABS. See Australian Bureau of Statistics

    • Absolute index number, 16.4

    • Accounting

      • current cost accounting, 2.57

    • Accrual accounting, 5.9

    • Accrual recording, (g)

    • Actual consumption expenditures, 14.29

    • Actual final consumption of households, 14.30

    • Actual market transaction prices, 1.328. See also Transaction price

    • Additive percentage change decompositions, 19.24–19.26(t)

    • Additive quality adjustment, 7.76(t)

    • Additivity, (g)

    • Additivity test, 1.77, 16.65–16.76

    • Administrative data, 1.254, 4.41, 4.60

    • Advisory committees, 13.75–13.77

    • Advisory groups, 1.278

    • Aggregates, (g). See also Elementary aggregates; Value aggregates

      • defined, 20.7

    • Aggregation, 1.120–1.122, (g)

      • consistency, 1.265

      • deflation of value added, 18.39–18.45

      • double deflation method for constructing real value added, 18.49–18.56

      • of establishment deflators into national value added deflator, 18.57–18.60

      • industry, 2.60

      • intermediate input price, 18.39–18.45

      • Laspeyres formula, 18.32–18.38

      • macroeconomic, 2.61

      • national intermediate input price index, 18.24–18.27

      • national output price index, 18.4–18.23

      • national value-added deflator, 18.28–18.31

      • national value-added deflator compared with final demand deflator, 18.61–18.80

      • output price, 18.39–18.45

      • over establishments, 18.4–18.31

      • overview, 18.1–18.3

      • Paasche formula, 18.32–18.38

      • stage of production, 2.64

      • structure, 9.9–9.10

      • superlative index, 18.32–18.38

      • two-stage, 18.32–18.38

      • value-added deflators, 18.39–18.56

    • Agriculture industry

      • annual chaining, 10.29–10.30

      • annual price index, 10.27–10.28

      • decomposition, 10.33–10.34

      • Farm Product Price Index, 10.13–10.17

      • linking at the annual index, 10.31–10.32

      • monthly price changes, 10.33–10.41

      • product prices, 3.43

      • seasonal baskets, 10.18–10.26

      • time reference, 10.43

      • treatment of products, 10.5, 10.11–10.44

      • use of receipts in the absence of quantities sold, 10.42

      • value-added deflators, 19.33–19.36(t)

    • Algorithms for data editing, 12.52–12.53

    • Annual chaining, 1.272, 1.377, 9.143–9.144, 10.29–10.30

    • Annual indices. See Seasonal products

    • Annual weights, 1.57, 15.34–15.65

    • ANZIC. See Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification

    • Arithmetic average of price relatives, 1.142–1.144

    • Arithmetic mean, weighted, 19.14

    • Arithmetic-type midyear indices, 19.23–19.26(t)

    • Artificial data set

      • additive percentage change decompositions,19.27–19.29(t)

      • final-demand data set, 19.6–19.22(t)

      • industry data set, 19.30–19.35(t)

      • midyear indices, 19.23–19.26(t)

      • national intermediate input price index, 19.52–19.55(t)

      • national output price index, 19.48–19.51(t)

      • national two-stage aggregation, 19.61–19.65(t)

      • national value-added deflator, 19.56–19.60(t)

      • overview, 19.1–19.5

      • price indices for final-demand components, 19.6–19.22

      • value-added deflators, 19.36–19.47(t)

    • Asymmetrically weighted price index, 19.12(t)

    • Auditors

      • backchecking, 12.33–12.38

      • monitoring data collection, 12.29–12.32

      • process auditing, 12.33–12.38

      • role of, 12.27–12.28, 12.39–12.41

    • Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification, 1.185, 3.72

    • Australian Bureau of Statistics, 10.45, 12.81

    • Average of price relatives, 1.141, 16.7–16.9

    • Average prices, 1.179, 3.25–3.29, 6.6, 6.12

    • Axiomatic approach, (g)

      • additivity test, 1.77, 16.65–16.76

      • bilateral price indices, 16.31–16.76, 16.97–16.132

      • elementary indices, 1.147–1.150, 9.25–9.30(t),20.31–20.44

      • Fisher ideal index and test approach, 16.56–16.59

      • homogeneity tests, 16.39–16.44, 16.102–16.108

      • invariance tests, 16.45–16.49, 16.109–16.114

      • limitations, 1.74

      • mean value tests, 16.50–16.52, 16.115

      • monotonicity tests, 16.53–16.55, 16.116

      • overview, 16.1–16.2

      • ranking of indices, 1.71–1.79, 20.41–20.44

      • symmetry tests, 16.45–16.49, 16.109–16.114

      • test performance, 16.60–16.64

      • Törnqvist-Theil price index, 16.123–16.132

      • unilateral price indices, 16.11–16.30

      • uses of, 1.61–1.70

      • weighting tests, 16.117–16.122

    • Backchecking, 12.33–12.38

    • Backward linking, 1.271, 9.118

    • Balancing items, 14.21

    • Banking industry. See Commercial banking industry

    • Base period, (g). See also Index reference period; Price reference period; Weight reference period

    • Base quality adjustment, 7.77

    • Base-weighted index, (g)

    • Base year, 15.34

    • Base-year revenue shares, 15.55

    • Basic information level, 20.9

    • Basic price, 1.293, 2.37, 14.19–14.20, (g)

    • Basket, (g)

    • Basket price index, 9.76, (g appendix). See also Fixed basket price index; individual indices

    • Bean and Stine Type C index, 22.11, 22.87–22.89

    • Benchmarking, 12.81

    • Bias, (g). See also Error

      • concepts of a true or good index, 11.18–11.20

      • due to product replacement and new goods, 1.301

      • dynamic universe, 11.30–11.32

      • from implicit quality adjustment, 7.99(t)

      • from inappropriate use of a PPI, 11.21–11.26

      • lower-level substitution bias, 11.43–11.44

      • new establishment bias, 11.46–11.47

      • new goods bias, 11.38

      • non-response bias, 5.6

      • nonsampling bias, 11.16–11.17

      • omitted variable bias, 21.93

      • PPI valuation and, 11.27

      • quality change bias, 11.34–11.37

      • response bias, 11.33

      • sampling bias, 11.11–11.15

      • sampling bias on initiation, 11.28–11.29

      • sources of, 11.1–11.9(t)

      • substitution bias, 1.88, 11.40–11.47, 17.24–17.25

      • temporarily missing bias, 11.39

      • undercoverage bias, 11.24

      • unit value bias, 11.45

      • upper-level substitution bias, 11.41–11.42

    • Bilateral index number theory, 16.3, 16.5

    • Bilateral price indices. See Axiomatic approach

    • Book price, 1.178, 1.328, 6.22, (g). See also List price

    • Bouncing, 1.261, (g)

      • price bouncing, 1.261

      • price bouncing test, 20.33

    • Bridge construction industry, 10.158–10.160

    • Bulletins, 13.47

    • Business census, 1.245–1.246, 4.33–4.34, 4.53–4.55

    • Business register, 1.252–1.253, 4.39–4.40, 4.56

    • Buyer coverage, 3.4–3.7

    • Calculation of price indices

      • elementary indices 9.6–9.74

      • higher-level indices 9.75–9.146

    • Canada

      • Farm Product Price Index, 10.13–10.17

      • WPI, 2.13

    • Capital account, 14.16. See also System of National Accounts

    • Capital formation, 14.39–14.40(t)

    • Carli price index, 9.70, 16.6, 16.77, 16.79, 19.8–19.11, 20.17, (g)

      • axiomatic approach, 1.149, 20.44

      • compilation of elementary price indices, 9.18–9.38(t)

      • economic approach, 1.163

      • elementary index, 20.17, 20.30, 20.43, 20.62, 20.83

      • final-demand commodities, 19.8(t)

      • relationships with other elementary indices, 1.143

      • treatment of missing prices, 9.52–9.54(t)

      • treatment of missing products, 9.55–9.63(t)

      • uses of, 1.82

    • Carruthers, Sellwood, Ward, Dalén index, 1.165, 20.20, 20.30, (g)

    • Carryforward, 7.109, 9.49, 9.182, 22.78–22.84(f)(t),(g)

    • Censuses, 1.245–1.246, 4.33–4.34, 4.53–4.55

    • Central Product Classification, 1.187, 3.73–3.75, 4.18,(g)

    • Chain index, 1.56–1.59, 1.113, 9.40–9.45(g)

      • annual chaining, 1.272, 1.377, 9.143–9.144,10.29–10.30

      • calculation of, 9.114–9.116(t)

      • compared with fixed-base indices, 15.77–15.98

      • final-demand commodities, 19.10–19.11(t)

      • Laspeyres index, 1.58–1.59

      • linking, 1.56

      • long-term links, 9.131–9.134

      • Lowe index, 1.57–1.58

      • midyear price index, 19.25–19.26(t)

      • month-to-month index, 9.19, 22.31–22.34

      • quality adjustment, 7.192–7.198

      • sampling and, 8.11–8.14

      • short-term links, 9.131–9.134

      • using linking coefficients, 9.117–9.118(t)

    • Chain linking, 1.377, (g and g appendix) introduction of new weights, 9.107–9.109

    • Chain-linking bias, (g)

    • Characteristics, (g). See also Product specification

    • c.i.f. price. See Cost, insurance, and freight price

    • Circularity, 20.36, (g)

    • Circularity test, 15.89–15.90, 15.93–15.97, 16.113, 16.135, 20.37

    • Class mean imputation, 1.229, 7.105–7.106

    • Classification

      • function of, 1.184

      • industrial, 1.185, 2.60, 3.66–3.72

      • industry aggregation, 2.60

      • international standard systems, 1.185, 1.187, 3.65

      • product classification, 1.186–1.187, 3.73–3.79

      • production activity, 3.66–3.72

      • role of, 1.184, 3.58–3.64

    • Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose, 20.7

    • Classification of Products by Activity, 1.185, 3.76–3.77, 4.18, (g)

    • Classification system, 1.173, 1.184–1.187, 4.17–4.20(t)

    • Clothing industry treatment of products, 10.8, 10.45–10.58

    • Coefficients. See also Linking coefficients hedonic quality adjustment, 7.136–7.137, 7.144

    • COICOP. See Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose

    • COLI. See Cost-of-living index

    • Collection. See Price collection

    • Collectors. See also Auditors training requirements, 12.68–12.71

    • Commensurability test, 1.62, 9.25, 16.46, 16.135, 20.37, (g)

    • Commercial banking industry

      • output of, 10.200–10.217

      • system of price statistics, 14.13–14.15(b)

      • treatment of products, 10.9, 10.199

      • U.S. PPI commercial bank index, 10.218–10.238

    • Commodities, (g)

    • Commodity analysis, 2.62

    • Commodity reversal test, 16.45, 16.109, 16.135, (g)

    • Comparable products quality adjustment methods, 7.73

    • Comparable replacement, 7.25, 7.107, 7.154, 7.200

    • Compensation of employees, 14.64(t), (g)

    • Compilers training requirements, 12.68–12.71

    • Component, (g)

    • Component pricing, 6.83, 10.125

    • Computer industry treatment of products, 10.7, 10.80–10.99

    • Computers

      • hedonic adjustment approach regression data, 7.1 (appendix)

      • hedonic method adjustments, 7.127–7.134

      • option cost adjustments, 7.123–7.125

      • price index, 10.80

      • quality adjustment issues, 7.61–7.65

    • Conditional cost function, 17.61

    • Confidentiality, 6.107, 13.61–13.64

    • Consistency in aggregation, (g)

    • Constant elasticity of substitution index, (g)

    • Constant prices test, 16.36, 16.101, (g)

    • Constant quantities test, 16.36–16.38, (g)

    • Construction industry, 3.2

      • bridges, 10.158–10.160

      • house building, 10.147–10.157

      • nonbuilding construction, 10.158–10.166

      • nonresidential building, 10.149–10.157

      • residential building other than houses, 10.149–10.157

      • roads, 10.158–10.160

      • treatment of products, 10.6, 10.139–10.146

    • Consumer price index, 1.97, 1.117, 2.30–2.31, 14.53–14.54(t)

    • Consumer side hedonic prices and, 21.13–21.17

    • Consumption of fixed capital, (g)

    • Continuity, 16.35, 16.101, 16.135, 20.32, (g)

    • Continuous time Divisia index, 15.73–15.76

    • Contract escalation, 2.2, 2.53, 3.63, (g). See also Indexation of contracts

    • Contract price, 1.178, 3.19–3.21, 10.121–10.124, (g)

    • Core inflation, 13.27–13.29

    • Corporate services price index, 3.3

    • Cost, insurance, and freight price, 14.42 (g)

    • Cost-of-living index, 2.7, (g)

    • Country product dummy method, 20.77

    • Coverage, 1.294–1.299, 11.23–11.26, (g)

      • buyer, 3.4–3.7

      • geographic, 3.45–3.48

      • industrial, 1.176, 2.41, 3.1–3.3

      • population, 1.175–1.177, 3.1–3.14

      • price, 1.178–1.181, 3.15–3.44

      • product, 1.176, 5.36, 14.47, 14.59

    • CPA. See Classification of Products by Activity

    • CPC. See Central Product Classification

    • CPI. See Consumer price index

    • CPI Manual, 2.30–2.33

    • Cross-subsidization, 3.33

    • CSPI. See Corporate services price index

    • CSWD index. See Carruthers, Sellwood, Ward, Dalén index

    • Current cost accounting, 2.57, 5.9, (g)

    • Current period, (g)

    • Current period quality adjustment, 7.77

    • Current-weighted index, (g). See also Paasche price index

    • Customs records, 1.256, 4.44

    • Cut-off sampling, 1.192, 5.30–5.33, 5.74–5.79, (g)

    • Data. See also Dissemination issues

      • administrative, 1.254, 4.41, 4.60

      • business censuses, 1.245–1.246, 4.33–4.34, 4.53–4.55

      • checking by impact, 9.171–9.173

      • collection, 1.188–1.208, 6.35, 6.42–6.65

      • correcting, 9.174–9.178

      • data output checking, 9.171–9.173

      • editing, 1.273, 9.147–9.179

      • electronic data, 3.55, 6.58, 6.59

      • establishment censuses, 1.245–1.246

      • identifying errors and outliers, 9.154–9.155

      • industry surveys, 1.247–1.249, 4.35–4.36

      • missing price observations, 9.180–9.185

      • nonstatistical checking, 9.156–9.162

      • registers, 1.252–1.253, 4.39–4.40, 4.56

      • statistical checking, 9.163–9.170

      • treatment of outliers, 9.179

      • verifying, 9.174–9.178

    • Decomposition

      • agriculture industry, 10.33–10.34

      • Fisher price index, 19.24–19.26(t)

      • of index changes, 9.135–9.138(t)

      • of value aggregates, 15.7–15.18

      • Van Ijzeren decomposition factor, 19.25–19.26(t)

      • Deflation of value added, 18.39–18.45

    • Delinquency follow-up, 6.102–6.104

    • Demand side

      • hedonic prices and, 21.13–21.17

    • Determinateness as to prices test, 16.130

    • Diagnosis Related Group, 10.298–10.311

    • Direct comparison, 7.73

    • Direct index, 9.63

    • Directed replacements, 8.31–8.37

    • Disaggregation, 4.57–4.58, 10.168. See also Ranking method

    • Disappearing goods, 8.36, 8.39

    • Disappearing items quality change, 21.2–21.11

    • Disaster Recovery Plan, 12.63–12.64

    • Discounts, 3.38–3.42, 6.67–6.80, (g)

    • Dispersion index report, 12.50

    • Dissemination issues, 1.278–1.281, 1.301, 1.358–1.366, 13.1–13.3

      • access to data, 13.57–13.60

      • confidentiality, 13.61–13.64

      • electronic release, 13.65–13.68

      • Internet release, 13.65–13.68

      • timeliness of release and data accuracy, 13.53–13.56

      • timing of release, 13.52

    • Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board, 12.75, 13.50

    • Divisia approach, 1.60, 2.8, (g)

      • discrete approximations, 15.66–15.76

      • relationship with economic approach, 17.100–17.105

    • Domain, (g)

    • Double counting, 4.14

    • Double deflation, (g)

      • aggregation, 1.121

      • constructing real value added, 18.49–18.56

      • value-added index, 1.122

    • Double logarithmic formulation, 7.133, 21.83

    • Double universe, 8.4, 8.52, 21.2

    • DRG. See Diagnosis Related Group

    • Drift, 1.283, 1.377, 9.74, (g)

    • Drobisch price index, 15.19, 19.16–19.17, (g)

    • final-demand commodities, 19.14(t)

    • DRP. See Disaster Recovery Plan

    • Dummy variables on time, 21.55–21.57

    • hedonic functions, 7.170–7.172

    • Durable input, (g)

    • Dutot index, (g)

      • compilation of elementary price indices, 9.18–9.30(t)

      • Dutot formula, 1.145, 20.16, 20.83

      • economic approach, 1.158

      • elementary index, 20.16, 20.30, 20.42, 20.57–20.61

      • relationships with other elementary indices, 1.144–1.145

      • treatment of missing prices, 9.52–9.54(t)

      • treatment of missing products, 9.55–9.63(t)

      • uses of, 1.63–1.64

    • Dynamic universe, 8.48–8.49, 11.30–11.32, 21.6

    • E-mail price data collection, 6.60

    • ECI. See Employment Cost Index

    • Economic approach, (g)

      • allowing for substitution, 1.116

      • approximations to superlative indices, 17.88–17.99

      • data requirements, 1.114–1.115

      • elasticity of substitution, 1.116

      • elementary indices, 1.151–1.167, 9.31–9.39, 20.45–20.55

      • estimating theoretical output indices, 1.99–1.103

      • Fisher ideal index, 17.27–17.31, 17.38–17.42

      • Fisher-Shell output index, 17.15–17.60

      • intermediate input indices, 1.117–1.118, 17.61–17.76

      • Lloyd-Moulton index, 1.116, 9.70,

      • midyear indices, 17.88–17.99

      • overview, 1.88–1.93, 17.1–17.14

      • relationship with Divisia approach, 17.100–17.105

      • representativity bias, 1.110–1.113

      • revenue maximizers, 1.87–1.88, 1.96

      • substitution bias, 1.88

      • superlative indices, 1.104–1.109, 17.43–17.60

      • theoretical output index, 1.94–1.98

      • Törnqvist index as approximation to output index, 17.32–17.37

      • value-added deflators, 1.117–1.119, 17.77–17.87

    • Economic theoretic index, 1.88, 1.91–1.92. See also Theoretical output price index

    • Economically significant prices, (g)

    • Edgeworth-Marshall cross, 10.35–10.40

    • Edgeworth price index, (g)

    • EDI. See Electronic data interchange

    • Editing, 1.335–1.338, 9.147–9.179, (g)

    • EFQM. See European Foundation for Quality Management Excellence Model

    • Elasticity

      • of demand 15.57

      • of substitution, 1.44, 1.116, 17.38

    • Electronic commerce, 1.183, 3.12–3.14, 3.53–3.55

    • Electronic data capture, 6.58

    • Electronic data interchange, 3.55

    • Electronic data transfer, 6.59

    • Elementary aggregates, (g). See also Value aggregates

      • adding items, 8.46–8.47

      • aggregation structure, 9.9–9.10

      • axiomatic approach, 9.25–9.30(t)

      • chained index, 9.40–9.45

      • change in price index, 8.40

      • classification system, 4.19–4.20(t)

      • compilation of elementary price indices, 1.257–1.266, 9.16–9.24(t)

      • composition of, 9.7–9.8

      • consistency in aggregation, 9.46–9.47

      • coverage of weights, 4.28–4.31

      • deleting items, 8.46–8.47

      • direct index, 9.40–9.45

      • economic approach, 9.31–9.39

      • heterogeneity of products, 1.137–1.138

      • heterogeneous, 1.160–1.167

      • homogeneous products, 1.155–1.159

      • introduction of new aggregates, 9.119–9.121

      • missing price observations, 9.48–9.63

      • price index calculation, 9.6–9.74

      • representative products, 1.136

      • revenue weights, 1.133–1.134

      • sources for weights, 4.32–4.46

      • treatment of missing prices, 9.49–9.54(t)

      • treatment of missing products, 9.55–9.63(t)

      • types of, 20.7

      • weighting, 1.139–1.140

      • weights within elementary aggregates, 9.11–9.15

    • Elementary index number formula, 20.11, 20.15– 20.20, 20.83

    • Elementary price index, 1.133–1.167, (g). See also Elementary aggregates

      • axiomatic approach, 1.147–1.150, 20.31–20.44

      • calculation of, 1.260–1.266, 9.16–9.24(t)

      • economic approach, 1.151–1.167, 20.45–20.55

      • ideal elementary indices, 20.7–20.14

      • numerical relationships between indices, 20.24–20.30

      • overview, 20.1–20.6

      • relationships between formulas, 1.141–1.146

      • revenue weights, 1.133–1.134

      • sampling approach, 20.56–20.74

      • stochastic approach, 20.75–20.83

      • used in practice, 20.15–20.23

    • Employment Cost Index, 14.64

    • Enterprise, 14.21, (g)

    • Enterprise surveys, 1.247–1.249, 4.35–4.36

    • Equilibrium hedonic prices, 21.22–21.23

    • Error, (g). See also Bias

      • concepts of a true or good index, 11.18–11.20

      • coverage of PPIs, 11.23–11.26

      • detection of, 9.148–9.149

      • dynamic universe, 11.30–11.32

    • Error (continued)

      • identifying, 9.154–9.155

      • from inappropriate use of a PPI, 11.21–11.26

      • nonsampling error, 11.16–11.17

      • PPI valuation and, 11.27

      • response error, 11.33

      • sampling error, 5.10, 11.11–11.15, 11.28–11.29

      • sources of, 11.1–11.9(t)

    • Escalated contract prices, 10.123. See also Contract escalation

    • Establishment census, 1.245–1.246. See also Business census

    • Establishments, 1.182, (g)

      • aggregation, 18.4–18.23

      • disappearance of, 8.38

      • economic approach, 17.2

      • institutional units, 14.14–14.15

      • intermediate input price index, 17.61–17.76

      • introducing new samples, 5.89–5.95

      • recruiting, 5.73

      • revenue function, 18.5

      • selecting products and transactions, 5.74–5.79(t)

      • selection of, 5.66–5.72(t)

      • value-added deflator, 17.77–17.87

    • Estimation, 11.17. See also Calculation of price indices

    • Estimator, 11.11

    • EU. See European Union

    • European Foundation for Quality Management Excellence Model, 12.82–12.84, 12.87–12.88

    • European Union Statistical Office of the European Communities, 6.16

    • Eurostat Classification of Products by Activity, 1.187, 3.76–3.77

    • Evolutionary goods, 1.242, 4.62–4.64, 8.20, 8.27, 8.31, 21.73–21.76, (g)

    • Exact hedonic index, 21.63–21.69

    • Excise duty, 2.47

    • Expert judgment, 7.111–7.112

    • Explicit quality adjustment, 1.211, 1.217, 1.232– 1.237, 7.110–7.151, 21.5

    • Explicit weights, 1.305, 4.48–4.52

    • Export Price Index, 1.177, 2.38, 14.2, 14.53–14.54(t)

    • Export prices, 2.48, 3.10–3.11, 3.45–3.48

    • External goods and services account, 14.16

    • External trade, 14.41–14.42(t)

    • Factor reversal test, 1.75–1.76, 16.59, (g)

    • Factory gate price, 2.42, (g)

    • Farm gate price, 3.43, (g)

    • Farm Product Price Index, 10.13–10.17

    • FEPI. See Final expenditure price index

    • Final demand, 2.59, 3.5–3.6, 14.11

    • Final-demand data set, 19.6–19.22(t)

    • Final-demand deflator, 18.61–18.80

    • Final expenditure price index, 2.51, 2.65, (g)

    • Financial institutions. See Commercial banking industry

    • FIOPI. See Fixed-input output price index

    • Fisher, Irving, 2.5–2.6

    • Fisher cross, 10.38

    • Fisher ideal price index. See also Fisher price index

      • as average of observable bounds, 17.27–17.31

      • final-demand commodities, 19.16(t)

      • overview, 17.38–17.42

      • test approach, 16.56–16.59

    • Fisher price index, (g)

      • additive percentage change decompositions, 19.27–19.29(t)

      • annual chain-link index, 22.37–22.45(t)

      • as average of Paasche and Laspeyres indices, 15.19–15.24

      • chained rolling-year index, 22.49–22.54(f)(t)

      • defined, 1.51

      • Fisher formula, 1.51, 15.19, 16.56

      • hedonic output price index, 21.45

      • midyear price indices, 19.24–19.26(t)

      • national Fisher intermediate input price index, 18.26

      • national Fisher output price index, 18.21

      • relationship with Lowe index, 1.39–1.40

      • superlative index, 1.102, 1.104–1.109

      • year-over-year index, 22.19–22.35(t)

    • Fisher-Shell output price index, 17.15–17.37

    • Fixed-base price index

      • compared with chain indices, 15.77–15.98

      • final-demand commodities, 19.8(t)

      • midyear indices, 19.23–19.26(t)

    • Fixed-basket price index, 15.3–15.4, (g and g appendix)

      • chain index, 1.56–1.59

      • Fisher index, 15.19–15.24

      • interrelationships, 1.36–1.41

      • linking, 1.55–1.56

      • pure price index theory, 15.25–15.32

      • symmetric averages, 15.19–15.33

      • Walsh index, 15.25–15.32. See also Walsh price index

    • Fixed basket test, 16.36, (g)

    • Fixed-input output price index, (g)

      • origins of, 1.13

      • quality adjustment, 7.44–7.51, 7.55–7.57

      • theoretical, 1.91–1.92, 15.101

    • Fixed-weight price index, (g)

    • Fleetwood, William, 2.3

    • Flexible functional form, 1.101, 17.85, 18.15

    • f.o.b. price. See Free on board price

    • FOIPI. See Fixed-output input price index

    • Formula approximation error, 20.12

    • Forward linking, 1.271, 9.117

    • FPPI. See Farm Product Price Index

    • Free on board price, 14.42, (g)

    • Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics, 13.3, 13.48

    • GDDS. See General Data Dissemination System

    • GDP. See Gross domestic product

    • GDP deflator, 14.62–14.63, 14.67. See also Valueadded deflator

    • Geary-Khamis quantity index, 1.77

    • General Data Dissemination System, 13.50–13.51

    • General government, 14.13–14.15(b)

    • General Industrial Classification of Economic Activities

    • within the European Communities, 1.185, 3.67(t), 4.18, 20.7, (g)

    • Geographic coverage, 3.45–3.48

    • Geometric average of price relatives, 1.142–1.144, 4.52

    • Geometric Laspeyres price index, 1.46–1.49, 9.33, (g)

      • for elementary aggregates, 9.65–9.66

      • final-demand commodities, 19.12(t)

      • seasonally adjusted, 22.90–22.97(t)

    • Geometric mean, 1.83, 9.18, 15.29, 16.56, 16.128, 17.34, 18.18, 19.14(t), 20.20

    • Geometric Paasche price index, 1.46–1.49, (g)

    • final-demand commodities, 19.12(t)

    • Geometric-type midyear indices, 19.23–19.26(t)

    • Geometric Young index, 1.46–1.49

    • Globalization impact of, 1.183, 3.12–3.14

    • Goods, (g)

    • Goods-producing sectors, 3.1

    • Gross domestic product

      • international comparisons, 14.66

      • nominal, 17.1

      • production and expenditure approaches, 14.11

      • production approach, 1.93

    • Gross output index, 1.290, 2.44

    • Gross sector output, (g)

    • Gross value added, (g)

    • Harmonic average, 20.19

    • Harmonic average of price relatives, 1.142–1.143, 9.68

    • Harmonic elementary index, 20.19–20.20, 20.30, 20.62, 20.83

    • Harmonic mean weighted, 15.15, 15.38, 19.14, 20.80

    • Harmonic mean of price relatives, 1.142–1.143, 9.68, (g)

    • Harmonic mean price index, (g). See also Harmonic mean

    • Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices, 2.25

    • Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, 3.73

    • Hedonic analysis, 1.235–1.237

    • Hedonic index, 7.168–7.191

      • dummy variables on time, 21.55–21.57

      • exact hedonic index, 21.63–21.69

      • hedonic regressions, 21.55–21.57

      • new goods and services, 21.72–21.76

      • period-on-period hedonic indices, 21.58–21.62

      • sampling and, 8.11–8.14

      • superlative index, 21.63–21.69

      • theoretical characteristics price indices, 21.53–21.54

      • unweighted hedonic index, 21.70–21.71

      • unweighted index number formula, 21.70–21.71

      • uses of, 21.52

    • Hedonic method, (g)

      • coefficients, 7.136–7.137, 7.144

      • difference between hedonic and matched indices, 7.189–7.191

      • dummy variables on time, 7.170–7.172

      • hedonic price indices, 7.168–7.191

      • implementation of, 7.138–7.145

      • indirect adjustment, 7.145

      • limitations of, 7.146–7.151

      • period-on-period indices, 7.173–7.178

      • predicted vs actual, 7.139–7.141

      • predicted vs predicted, 7.142–7.144

      • principles of, 7.126–7.135(f)(t)

      • regression data, 7.1 (appendix)

      • superlative and exact hedonic indices, 7.179–7.188

    • Hedonic prices

      • alternative theoretical formulation, 21.33–21.48

      • consumer side, 21.13–21.17

      • demand side, 21.13–21.17

      • equilibrium, 21.22–21.23

      • imperfect competition, 21.49–21.51

      • implicit markets and, 21.12–21.51

      • items as tied bundles of characteristics, 21.12(f)

      • markups, 21.49–21.51

      • meaning of, 21.24–21.32

      • model price functions, 21.34

      • producer side, 21.18–21.21

      • supply side, 21.18–21.21

    • Hedonic regressions, 21.8, 21.12, 21.55–21.57

      • changing tastes and technology, 21.85

      • econometric issues, 21.77–21.93

      • functional form, 21.81–21.84

    • Hedonic regressions (continued)

      • identification and appropriate estimators, 21.78–21.80

      • multicollinearity, 21.91–21.92

      • omitted variable bias, 21.93

      • weighting, 21.86–21.90

    • Heterogeneity of products, 1.137–1.138

    • HICPs. See Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices

    • Hidden economy, (g)

    • High inflation price collection issues, 6.25–6.27

    • High-technology sectors quality adjustment, 7.161–7.198

    • Higher-level index, (g)

      • alternatives to fixed weight indices, 9.139–9.146

      • calculation of, 1.267–1.268, 9.75–9.146

      • chain linking, 9.107–9.109

      • chained index calculation, 9.114–9.116(t)

      • chaining indices using linking coefficients, 9.117–9.118(t)

      • data editing, 9.147–9.185

      • decomposition of index changes, 9.135–9.138(t)

      • factoring the Young index, 9.94–9.96

      • frequency of reweighting, 9.110–9.113

      • introducing new elementary aggregates, 9.119–9.121

      • introducing new goods, 9.124–9.130

      • introducing new higher-level indices, 9.122–9.123

      • introducing new weights, 9.107–9.109

      • long-term links, 9.131–9.134

      • Lowe index, 9.89–9.93

      • partial reweighting, 9.124–9.130

      • PPIs as weighted averages of elementary indices, 9.78–9.96(t)

      • price-updating from weight reference period, 9.97–9.106(t)

      • production and maintenance of, 1.269–1.272

      • short-term links, 9.131–9.134

      • target indices, 9.75–9.77

      • Young index, 9.89–9.96

    • Homogeneity tests, 16.39–16.44, 16.102–16.108, 16.135

    • Homogeneous products, 1.154–1.159, 20.59

    • Hospital industry treatment of products, 10.9, 10.290–10.311

    • House building industry, 10.147–10.157

    • Household enterprises, 4.65–4.66

    • Households, 14.13–14.15(b)

    • HS. See Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System

    • Hybrid weights, 1.34

    • Hyperinflation price collection issues, 6.25–6.27

    • ICPI. See Intermediate Consumption Price Indices

    • Ideal elementary indices, 20.7–20.14

    • Identification problem, 21.25

    • Identity test, 1.62, 9.25, 16.36, 16.101, 16.135, 20.32, (g)

    • IDI. See Implicit deflator index

    • IMF Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board, 13.50

    • Implicit deflator index, 14.59

    • Implicit markets hedonic prices and, 21.12–21.51

    • Implicit quality adjustment methods, 1.211, 1.217, 1.219–1.231, 7.80–7.109

    • Implicit Walsh index final-demand commodities, 19.16(t)

    • Implicit weights, 1.305, 4.48–4.52

    • Import Price Index, 14.2, 14.53–14.54(t)

    • Import prices, 2.48, 3.10–3.11, 3.45–3.48

    • Imputation, 1.224, 1.228–1.230, 7.73

    • Imputation of unavailable prices, 9.48–9.63

    • seasonal products, 22.78–22.86(f)(t)

    • Imputed expenditures, 14.32–14.33

    • Imputed price, (g)

    • Index estimation strategy, 8.48–8.49

    • Index item, (g)

    • Index linking, 2.11. See also Linking

    • Index number formulas, (g appendix)

      • choice of, 1.125–1.132

      • index number theory, 1.18

      • superlative indices, 1.16–1.17

    • Index number problem, 15.1–15.3, 15.27, 16.12, (g)

    • Index number theory, 1.18, 15.34–15.98

      • annual base-year quantities, 15.34–15.49

      • annual weights, 15.34–15.65

      • chain index, 1.56–1.59

      • decomposition of value aggregates, 15.7–15.18

      • discrete approximations, 15.73–15.76

      • Divisia index, 1.60, 15.66–15.76

      • Fisher index, 15.19–15.24

      • fixed-base vs chain indices, 15.77–15.98

      • fixed basket index, 1.36–1.41, 1.55–1.59

      • geometric indices, 1.46–1.49

      • index number purpose, 1.19

      • Laspeyres index, 1.24–1.35, 15.12–15.18

      • Lowe index, 1.20–1.23, 15.34–15.54

      • midyear indices, 15.50–15.54

      • monthly price indices, 15.34–15.65

      • overview, 15.1–15.6

      • Paasche index, 1.24–1.33, 15.12–15.18

      • product test, 15.7–15.11

      • relationship between Lowe and Laspeyres indices, 15.102–15.104

      • relationship between Paasche and Laspeyres indices, 15.99–15.101

      • relationship between Young index and its time antithesis, 15.105–15.108

      • seasonal products and, 22.6

      • symmetric averages of fixed-basket indices, 15.19–15.33

      • symmetric index, 1.50–1.54

      • theory of pure price index, 15.25–15.33

      • Walsh index, 15.25–15.32. See also Walsh price index

      • Young index, 1.42–1.45, 15.55–15.65. See also Young index

    • Index point effect, 9.138(t)

    • Index reference period, 9.83, (g)

    • Index terminology, (g appendix)

    • Indexation of contracts, 2.54–2.55, (g). See also Contract escalation

    • Individual consumption expenditures, 14.29

    • Industrial classifications, 1.185, 3.66–3.72

    • Industrial coverage, 1.176, 3.1–3.3

    • Industry, (g). See also specific industry

    • treatment of products, 10.1–10.10

    • Industry aggregation, 2.60, 4.5, 4.19–4.20, 13.37

    • Industry associations, 4.42

    • Industry-based stage-of-processing indices, 14.50. See also Stage of processing

    • Industry labor productivity, 2.68

    • Industry specialists, 6.101

    • Industry surveys, 1.247–1.249, 4.35–4.36

    • Inflation

      • core inflation, 13.27–13.29

      • CPI vs PPI as measure of, 14.55–14.57

      • PPI as short-term indicator, 2.52

      • price collection issues, 6.25–6.27

      • sources of, 2.42–2.43

    • Information technology, 10.269

    • Input data

      • correcting, 9.174–9.178

      • missing price observations, 9.180–9.185

      • nonstatistical checking, 9.156–9.162

      • statistical checking, 9.163–9.170

      • treatment of outliers, 9.179

      • verifying, 9.174–9.178

    • Input editing, 1.335, (g). See also Data editing

    • Input PPI, 1.3, (g). See also Intermediate input price index

    • Input price indices, 2.40

    • Institutional unit, 14.13–14.15(b), (g)

    • Insurance industry treatment of products, 10.9, 10.239–10.263

    • Inter-Secretariat Working Group on Price Statistics, 2.26, 2.30, 2.32–2.33

    • Intermediate basket, (g)

    • Intermediate consumption, 7.68, 14.5, 14.48, 17.1, (g)

    • Intermediate Consumption Price Indices, 14.45

    • Intermediate demand, 3.6

    • Intermediate input price index, 1.117–1.118

      • aggregation, 18.39–18.45

      • economic approach, 17.61–17.76

    • Intermediate inputs, 2.40, (g)

    • International standard classification systems, 3.65–3.79

    • International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, 1.185, 3.66–3.67(t), 10.2, (g)

    • International standards, 2.17–2.33

    • International transactions, 1.299

    • International Working Group on Price Indices, 2.21

    • Internet, 3.55

      • PPI dissemination, 13.65–13.68

      • price data collection, 6.56–6.57

    • Intersection universe, 8.4, 8.51, 21.2

    • Interviews, 6.52–6.55

    • Intracompany transfer price, 1.180, 3.34–3.37, (g). See also Transfer price

    • Invariance tests, 16.45–16.49, 16.109–16.114

    • Invariance to changes in the units of measurement test, 1.62, 16.46, 16.110, 16.135, (g)

    • Invariance to proportional change in current- or basequantities test, 1.78, 15.31, 16.43, 16.104, (g)

    • Inverse proportionality in base-year prices test, 16.42, 16.103, 20.32, (g)

    • Irrelevance of price change with tiny value weights, 16.120

    • ISIC. See International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities

    • ISO 9000, 12.85–12.88

    • IT. See Information technology

    • Item, (g)

    • Item replacement, 8.6–8.10

    • Item rotation, (g)

    • Item substitution, (g)

    • IWGPS. See Inter-Secretariat Working Group on Price Statistics

    • Jevons price index, 9.70, (g)

      • axiomatic approach, 1.148–1.150

      • compilation of elementary price indices, 9.18–9.38(t)

      • economic approach, 1.161, 1.164, 1.166

      • elementary index, 1.264, 20.18, 20.30, 20.41

      • final-demand commodities, 19.8–19.9(t)

      • in imputations, 7.91–7.92

      • Jevons formula, 9.18, 16.78, 20.83

      • relationships with other elementary indices, 1.143–1.144, 20.24–20.30

      • treatment of missing prices, 9.52–9.54(t)

      • treatment of missing products, 9.55–9.63(t)

    • Jevons price index (continued)

    • uses of, 1.83

    • Judgmental sampling, 1.317, 4.49

    • Konüs and Byushgens price index, 15.90, 15.92

    • Konüs-type hedonic output price index, 21.36

    • Lagged prices, 6.115

    • Laspeyres price index, (g and g appendix)

      • aggregation, 18.32–18.38

      • annual chain link index, 22.36–22.44(t)

      • chained, 1.58–1.59

      • chained rolling-year index, 22.47–22.54(f)(t)

      • decomposing current value changes, 1.29–1.30

      • for elementary aggregates, 9.65–9.66

      • elementary index, 20.56

      • equations, 15.12–15.18

      • final-demand commodities, 19.8(t)

      • formulas, 1.25, 1.66, 9.65, 15.42

      • geometric, 1.46–1.49, 9.33, 9.47, 9.65–9.66, 16.126, 19.12–19.14(t)

      • index of net output prices, 18.29

      • intermediate input price index, 1.117–1.119, 18.25

      • national Laspeyres output price index, 18.19

      • Paasche and Laspeyres bounding test, 1.62, 1.99, 16.52, 17.25(f), (g)

      • quantity index, 1.29, 15.16

      • quantity weights, 4.9

      • ratio of two Laspeyres indices, 1.33

      • relationship with Fisher index, 1.39

      • relationship with Lowe index, 1.39, 15.102–15.104

      • relationship with Paasche index, 1.36–1.39, 15.99–15.101

      • special case of Lowe index, 1.24–1.28

      • test performance, 1.66, 1.76, 16.61

      • value-added deflators, 18.46–18.48

      • year-over-year index, 22.22–22.34(t)

    • Laspeyres-type hedonic output price index, 21.39

    • Legal services industry

      • model pricing, 10.289

      • standard specifications, 10.289

      • treatment of products, 10.9, 10.272–10.289

    • Levels approach to index number theory, 16.11–16.30

    • Linear functional form, 21.83

    • Linking

      • backward, 1.271, 9.118

      • forward, 1.271, 9.117

      • with overlapping prices, 9.60

      • quality adjustment, 1.219–1.220, 7.108

    • Linking coefficients

      • chaining indices, 9.117–9.118(t)

      • partial reweighting, 9.127

    • List price, 1.178, 6.21–6.24, (g)

    • LKAU. See Local kind of activity unit

    • Lloyd-Moulton price index, 1.116, 9.70, (g)

    • Local kind of activity unit, 14.14, (g)

    • Long-term links, 9.131–9.134

    • Lowe, Joseph, 2.4

    • Lowe price index, (g and g appendix)

      • with annual base-year quantities, 15.34–15.49

      • chained, 1.57–1.58

      • formula, 1.22, 15.15

      • interrelationships, 1.39–1.41

      • midyear indices, 15.50–15.54

      • with monthly price indices, 15.34–15.49

      • ratio of two Lowe indices, 1.31–1.32

      • relationship with Fisher index, 1.39–1.40

      • relationship with Laspeyres index, 1.39, 15.102–15.104

      • relationship with Paasche index, 1.39, 15.49

      • relationship with Young index, 9.89–9.93

      • representativity bias, 1.110–1.112

      • seasonally adjusted, 22.91–22.97(f)(t)

      • test performance, 1.67–1.69

      • test properties, 16.133–16.137

      • time reversal test, 1.67–1.68

      • updated, 1.34–1.35

      • uses of, 1.20–1.23

    • Lower-level index, (g). See also Elementary aggregates

    • Lower-level substitution bias, 11.43–11.44

    • Macroeconomic aggregation, 2.61

    • Manufacturing sector value-added deflators, 19.40–19.43(t)

    • Margin price, 10.170

    • Marginal unit revenue, 21.20

    • Market price, 1.328, 3.18, 6.88, (g). See also Transaction prices

    • Markups, 21.49–21.51

    • Marshall-Edgeworth price index, 1.127, 15.28, 15.31, 17.89, (g)

    • final-demand commodities, 19.16(t)

    • Matched-models method, 1.197, 7.12, 7.14–7.32, (g)

      • missing products, 7.15–7.22, 8.1

      • new products, 7.27–7.32, 8.1

      • sampling issues, 7.23–7.26, 8.1

    • Matched products method, (g)

    • Matched universe, 21.4, 21.6

    • Maximizing behavior, 1.94, 1.162–1.163, 17.21, 20.46

    • Mean value test, 16.135, 20.32

    • Mean value test for prices, 1.62, 16.50, 16.115, (g)

    • Mean value test for quantities, 16.51, (g)

    • Methodological statement, 13.47

    • Microeconomic approach, (g)

    • Midperiod price index, (g)

    • Midyear indices, 15.50–15.54, 17.88–17.99

    • artificial data set, 19.23–19.26(t)

    • Missing price observations, 1.263, 9.48–9.63

    • Missing products, 7.15–7.22

    • Model pricing, 6.83, 10.122, 10.129

    • Modified Laspeyres price index, 7.82, (g), (g appendix)

    • Monetary expenditures, 14.32

    • Monotonicity in prices, 1.62, 16.53, 16.116, 20.32, (g)

    • Monotonicity in quantities, 16.53, (g)

    • Monotonicity tests, 16.53–16.55, 16.135

    • Month-to-month index, 9.19

    • seasonal products, 22.9–22.11, 22.63–22.77(t), 22.97

    • Monthly chained index, 9.19, 9.62

    • Monthly price indices, 15.34–15.65. See also Producer price index, calculation of Motor vehicles industry treatment of products, 10.7, 10.100–10.116

    • Moving-year indices. See Rolling-year indices

    • MPI. See Import Price Index

    • Multifactor productivity, (g). See also Total factor productivity

    • Multicollinearity, 21.91–21.92

    • Multiperiod identity test, 15.95

    • Multiplicative quality adjustment, 7.76(t)

    • Multitiered stratification, 5.34

    • Multitiered weighting system, 4.55

    • NACE. See General Industrial Classification of Economic Activities within the European Communities

    • NAICS. See North American Industrial Classification System

    • Narrowly defined unit value, 20.10

    • National accounts, 1.250–1.251, 4.37–4.38. See also

    • System of National Accounts

    • National accounts deflator, 2.53

    • National intermediate input price index, 18.24–18.27

    • artificial data set, 19.52–19.55(t)

    • National output price index, 18.4–18.23

    • artificial data set, 19.48–19.51(t)

    • National revenue function, 18.5

    • National two-stage aggregation

    • artificial data set, 19.61–19.65(t)

    • National value-added deflator, 18.28–18.31

      • aggregation of establishment deflators, 18.57–18.60

      • artificial data set, 19.56–19.60(t)

      • compared with final-demand deflator, 18.61–18.80

    • Net of intersectoral sales, 2.44–2.46

    • Net output index, 1.290

    • Net output PPIs, 14.46–14.48

    • Net output weights, 4.12–4.16

    • Net revenue function, 17.79

    • Net sector output, (g)

    • Net transaction prices, 3.17–3.18

    • Net value added, (g)

    • New establishment bias, 11.46–11.47

    • New-good problem, (g)

    • New goods, 1.242–1.243, (g)

      • defining, 8.17–8.21

      • identification and detection, 8.22–8.25

      • issues for inclusion of, 8.22–8.25

      • methods for introducing, 8.26–8.37(t), 8.38

      • partial reweighting, 9.124–9.130

      • quality change, 21.2–21.11

    • New goods and services, 1.242–1.243

    • hedonic indices, 21.72–21.76

    • New goods bias, 11.38

    • New product weights, 4.62–4.64

    • New products. See also New goods

    • matched-models method, 8.1

    • quality adjustment issues, 7.27–7.32, 7.70

    • Nominal prices, (g)

    • Nonprofit institutions serving households, 14.13–14.15(b)

    • Nonbuilding construction, 10.158–10.166

    • Noncomparable replacement, 7.15, 7.138, 7.201–7.202

    • Nonfinancial corporations, 14.13–14.15(b)

    • Nonmarket goods and services, 3.8–3.9

    • Nonmarket transactions, 1.295, (g)

    • Nonprobability sampling, 1.317, 5.16–5.29, (g)

    • Nonresidential building, 10.149–10.157

    • Nonresponse bias, 5.6, (g)

    • Normalized Rothwell index, 22.88–22.89(f)

    • North American Industrial Classification System, 1.185, 3.68–3.71

    • North American Product Class System, 3.78–3.79

    • NPISHs. See Nonprofit institutions serving households

    • Numerical data, 1.123–1.124. See also Artificial data set

    • Observation, 6.18–6.24, (g)

    • Observation point, (g)

    • Offer function, 21.21

    • Office staff

      • quality checks by, 12.42–12.46

    • OLS. See Ordinary least squares regression

    • Omitted variable bias, 21.93

    • Optimizing behavior, 1.94, 17.15

    • Option cost adjustments, 7.118–7.125

    • Order price, 3.15–3.16, (g)

    • Ordinary least squares regression, 7.128

    • Other subsidies on production, (g)

    • Other taxes on production, (g)

    • Ottawa Group, 2.21, 2.33

    • Outliers, (g)

      • detection of, 9.148–9.49

      • identifying, 9.154–9.155, 9.160

      • treatment of, 9.179

    • Output, (g)

    • Output aggregator function, 17.101

    • Output editing, 1.337, 1.352, (g)

    • Output PPI, (g)

    • Output price index

      • aggregation, 18.39–18.45

      • theoretical, 1.94–1.103, 17.21–17.42, 21.45

      • Törnqvist price index as approximation to, 17.32–17.37

    • Output prices, 2.38, 2.43

    • Output producer price index uses of, 1.3

    • Output value aggregate, 14.27(b)

    • Outsourcing, 3.57

    • Overall mean imputation, 1.229–1.230, 7.90–7.104(t)

    • Overlap quality adjustment method, 7.80–7.89(t), 7.203–7.204

    • Overlapping quality adjustment, 1.219–1.223

    • Own share price weighting, 16.118

    • Paasche and Laspeyres bounding test, 1.62, 1.99, 16.52, 17.25(f), (g)

    • output price index, 17.25(f)

    • Paasche price index, (g)

      • aggregation, 18.32–18.38

      • annual chain link index, 22.36–22.44(t)

      • chained rolling-year index, 22.47–22.54(f)(t)

      • decomposing current value changes, 1.29–1.30

      • equations, 15.12–15.18

      • final-demand commodities, 19.8(t)

      • formula, 1.27, 15.47

      • geometric, 1.46–1.47, 16.126, 19.12 (t)

      • index of net output prices, 18.29

      • intermediate input price index, 1.117–1.119, 18.25

      • national Paasche output price index, 18.20

      • quantity index, 1.29, 15.16

      • relationship with Fisher index, 1.39

      • relationship with Laspeyres index, 1.36–1.39, 15.99–15.101

      • relationship with Lowe index, 1.39, 15.49

      • special case of Lowe index, 1.24–1.28

      • test performance, 1.66, 1.76, 16.61

      • value-added deflators, 18.46–18.48

      • year-over-year index, 22.22–22.34(t)

    • Paasche-type hedonic output price index, 21.41

    • Palgrave price index, 19.12–9.13(t), (g)

    • Partial reweighting, 9.124–9.130

    • PCE. See Personal consumption expenditures

    • Performance management, 12.65–12.74

    • Period-on-period hedonic indices, 7.173–7.178, 21.58–21.62

    • Period prices, 6.6–6.14

    • Personal consumption expenditures, 3.4. See also Individual consumption expenditures

    • Personal interviews, 6.52–6.54

    • Petroleum refining industry

    • treatment of products, 10.5, 10.59–10.70

    • PMCs. See Profit-maximizing centers

    • Point-in-time prices, 1.325, 6.4–6.5, 6.14, (g)

    • Population coverage, 1.175–1.177, 3.1–3.14

      • class of buyer coverage, 3.4–3.7

      • e-commerce, 3.12–3.14

      • economic activities, 3.1–3.3

      • export coverage, 3.10–3.11

      • globalization considerations, 3.12–3.14

      • import coverage, 3.10–3.11

      • nonmarket goods and services, 3.8–3.9

    • Positivity, 1.62, 16.35, 16.101, 16.135, (g)

    • Postal surveys, 6.43–6.49

    • PPI. See Producer price index

    • PPPs. see Purchasing power parities

    • PPS. See Probability proportional to size

    • Press releases, 13.41–13.47, 13.80(f*)

    • Price basis, 7.46–7.49, 7.72, 21.1, 21.3–21.4

    • Price bouncing, 1.261, 9.23, 9.69, 19.39

    • Price-bouncing test, 20.33

    • Price collection. See also Sampling

      • algorithms, 12.52–12.53

      • auditors, 12.27–12.41

      • automated telephone data submission, 6.50–6.51

      • backchecking, 12.33–12.38

      • confidentiality issues, 6.107

      • continuity, 1.202–1.205, 12.19–12.20

      • contracting out, 12.8

      • criteria that affect product’s price, 6.32(t)

      • data entry queries, 12.21–12.25

      • dealing with refusals, 6.106–6.107

      • delinquency follow-up, 6.102–6.104

      • dispersion index report, 12.50

      • E-mail collection, 6.60

      • electronic data, 6.58–6.59

      • feedback, 12.26

      • field procedures, 6.66–6.104

      • forms, 6.116(f*)

      • frequency, 1.199, 1.325, 6.15–6.17

      • in-house, 12.6–12.10

      • industry specialists’ role, 6.101

      • inflation issues, 6.25–6.27

      • Internet data provision, 6.56–6.57

      • lagged prices, 6.115

      • list prices, 6.21–6.24

      • medium, 6.42–6.65

      • methods, 1.201, 1.323–1.334, 6.42–6.65

      • mode of, 12.6–12.10

      • monitoring data collection, 12.29–12.32

      • organization and management, 1.274–1.277, 12.1–12.3

      • overview, 6.1

      • period prices, 6.6–6.14

      • personal interview method, 6.52–6.54

      • point-in-time prices, 6.4–6.5, 6.14

      • postal survey, 6.43–6.49

      • price discounts, 6.67–6.80

      • price discrimination, 6.92–6.98

      • price observation, 6.18–6.20

      • procedures, 6.35–6.104

      • process auditing, 12.33–12.38

      • process initiation, 12.4–12.10

      • product specification, 1.200, 6.28–6.34

      • published sources, 6.61–6.64

      • purposive sampling, 1.192–1.197

      • quality changes, 6.81–6.82

      • quality checks, 12.27–12.53

      • quality in field data collection, 12.11–12.26

      • questionnaire design, 6.36–6.41

      • quote report, 12.51

      • random sampling, 1.191–1.197

      • rebates, 6.69–6.80

      • reducing respondent workload, 6.108

      • regulatory data sources, 6.65

      • reports, 12.47–12.51

      • respondent relations, 6.105–6.108

      • sampling issues, 6.89–6.91

      • seasonal products, 6.116

      • self completion method, 6.43–6.49

      • specification changes, 6.81–6.82

      • telephone interview method, 6.55

      • timing of, 1.199, 6.2–6.30

      • training programs, 12.12–12.16

      • transaction descriptions, 12.17–12.18. See also

      • Product specification

      • transfer prices, 6.88

      • unique products, 6.83–6.86

      • unit values, 6.87

      • verification, 6.109–6.114

    • Price collectors, 1.275, 7.15, 8,16

    • Price coverage, 1.178–1.181

      • agricultural prices, 3.43

      • average prices, 3.25–3.29

      • contract prices, 3.19–3.21

      • discounts, 3.38–3.42

      • intracompany transfer prices, 3.34–3.37

      • net transaction prices, 3.17–3.18

      • order prices, 3.15–3.16

      • shipment prices, 3.15–3.16

      • spot market prices, 3.22–3.24

      • structured product descriptions, 3.44

      • subsidized prices, 3.30–3.33

      • surcharges, 3.38–3.42

    • Price discounts, 6.67–6.80

    • Price discrimination, 6.92–6.98

    • Price index, (g)

      • defined, 15.7

      • higher-level, 1.188, 1.267–1.268, 1.269–1.272. 9.46, 9.75–9.146

      • lower-level, 1.188–1.189, 9.46. See also Elementary

      • aggregates

      • uses of, 1.1

    • Price level, 16.4

    • Price observation, 6.18–6.20

    • Price reference period, 1.21–1.22, 1.33–1.35, 9.83, (g)

    • Price relative, 1.26, 1.142–1.144, 5.95, 7.47, 9.18(t),(g)

    • Price reversal test, 16.49, 16.59, 16.61–16.63, (g)

    • Price survey

      • objectives of, 5.7–5.13

      • sampling problems, 5.6

    • Price updated weights, 1.35, 9.94, 9,97, 9.101–9.105(t)

    • Price updating, (g and g appendix)

    • Pricing point, (g)

    • Pricing to constant quality, 1.327, 1.340, 6.89, (g)

    • Probability proportional to quantities sold, 1.158

    • Probability proportional to revenue shares, 1.163

    • Probability proportional to size, 5.21, (g)

    • Probability sampling, 1.317, 4.57–4.58, 5.16–5.29, 5.74–5.79, (g)

    • Probability selection methods, 5.6

    • Process auditing, 12.33–12.38

    • PRODCOM. See Eurostat Classification of Products

    • by Activity

    • Producer price index, (g)

      • alternative indices, 13.30–13.34

      • analysis of contributions to change, 13.21–13.24

      • background, 2.34–2.41

      • for business services, 13.34

      • calculation of, 1.257–1.273, 1.351–1.357, 9.6–9.146

      • classification structure, 1.300–1.302

      • combinations of, 2.59–2.68

      • concepts, 1.173–1.187, 11.18–11.20

      • coverage. See Price coverage

      • determining objectives, scope and conceptual basis of, 1.286–1.293

      • development steps, 1.282–1.285

      • documentation, 12.72–12.73

    • Producer price index (continued)

      • economic commentary and interpretation, 13.25–13.26

      • electronic data, 9.73–9.74

      • importance of quality management, 12.87–12.88

      • for industrial activities, 13.33

      • industrial coverage, 1.176, 3.1–3.3 input, 1.3

      • international standards, 2.17–2.33

      • introducing changes, 12.62

      • maintaining samples of businesses, 1.371–1.373

      • methodological statement, 13.47

      • monthly compilation, 12.56–12.58

      • monthly consultations, 12.61

      • net output PPIs, 13.31–13.32

      • official price indices, 2.10–2.16

      • organizational structure and responsibilities, 12.54–12.55

      • origins of, 1.13, 2.2–2.9

      • output, 1.3

      • population coverage, 1.175–1.177, 3.1–3.14

      • presentation of methodology, 13.71–13.74

      • price collection and editing, 1.323–1.339, 6.109–6.114

      • price coverage, 1.178–1.181

      • product coverage, 1.176, 5.36, 14.47

      • product specifications, 1.367–1.370, 6.28–6.34

      • production and quality assurance, 12.54–12.64

      • purpose of, 1.174, 2.34–2.50

      • quality adjustment, 1.340–1.350, 7.71–7.160

      • quality issues, 13.78–13.80

      • reviews, 12.74

      • reweighting, 1.374–1.380. See also Weights,

      • updating

      • sample design, 1.315–1.322

      • seasonal adjustment and smoothing, 13.14–13.20

      • for services, 13.33

      • stage of processing, 13.30

      • statistical units, 1.182–1.183

      • subaggregate indices, 13.35–13.40

      • target indices, 9.75–9.77

      • time series types of presentation, 13.4–13.13

      • training requirements, 12.66–12.73

      • uses of, 1.9–1.15, 2.51–2.58, 11.21–11.26, 13.69–13.70

      • valuation, 11.27

      • value-added, 1.3

      • weighting pattern, 1.303–1.314

    • Producer side hedonic prices and, 21.18–21.21

    • Producer’s index, (g)

    • Producer’s price, 2.37, (g)

    • Product-based stage of processing indices, 14.49

    • Product classifications, 1.186–1.187, 3.73–3.79, 4.17–4.20(t)

    • Product coverage, 1.176, 5.36, 14.47

    • Product detail in production account, 14.24(t)

    • Product line, (g)

    • Product line specification, (g)

    • Product rotation, (g)

    • Product specification, 6.28–6.34, (g)

      • aspects of, 6.32–6.33

      • price collection, 6.28–6.34

      • purpose of, 6.31

      • recording, 5.84

      • structural descriptions, 3.44

    • Product substitution, 1.239–1.241, 7.153, 10.86

    • Product test, 15.7–15.11, 16.32, 16.98, (g)

    • Product weights, 4.47–4.66

    • Production, 17.3, (g)

    • Production account, 14.16, 14.21–14.27(t)

    • Production cost adjustment, 7.118–7.125

    • Production function, 17.15–17.17, 19.16, 21.34

    • Production possibilities set, 17.15, 17.17, 17.24–17.25, 17.27

    • Productivity analysis, 2.68

    • Products, (g)

    • Profit function, 17.77–17.81

    • Profit-maximizing centers, 3.36

    • Proportionality in current prices test, 1.62, 16.39,16.102, 20.32, (g)

    • Proportionality test, 9.25, 16.41

    • Pseudo-superlative index, (g)

    • Publication. See Dissemination issues

    • Purchasers’ index, (g)

    • Purchasers’ price, 1.293, 14.19–14.20, (g)

    • Purchasing power parities, 14.66–14.68

    • Pure price change, 1.202, 1.340, (g)

    • Pure price index, 1.95, 1.109, 1.127, 15.25–15.32, (g)

    • Pure quantity index, 16.67

    • Purposive sampling, 1.192–1.197, 5.80–5.83

    • Quadratic mean of order r indices, 1.104, 17.43–17.54

    • Quality adjustment, (g). See also Quality change

      • additive vs multiplicative, 7.76(t)

      • base vs current period adjustment, 7.77

      • carryforward, 7.109

      • chaining, 7.192–7.198

      • choosing a method, 7.152–7.160(f)

      • class mean imputation, 7.105–7.106

      • comparable replacement, 7.107, 7.200

      • difference between hedonic and matched indices,7.189–7.191

      • dummy variables on time, 7.170–7.172

      • expert judgment, 7.111–7.112

      • explicit methods, 7.110–7.151

      • hedonic approach, 7.126–7.151(f)(t). See also Hedonic method

      • hedonic price indices, 7.168–7.191. See also Hedonic index

      • high-technology sectors, 7.161–7.198

      • implicit methods, 7.80–7.109

      • information requirements, 8.15–8.16

      • linked to show no price change, 7.108

      • long-run comparisons, 7.78, 7.199–7.213(t) methods, 7.73–7.75

      • noncomparable replacement, 7.201–7.202

      • option cost adjustments, 7.118–7.125

      • overall mean imputation, 7.90–7.104(t)

      • overlap method, 7.80–7.89, 7.203–7.204

      • period-on-period indices, 7.173–7.178

      • petroleum refining industry, 10.67

      • producer price index, 1.340–1.350

      • product cost adjustment, 7.118–7.125

      • quantity adjustment, 7.113–7.117

      • rapid turnover of models, 7.161–7.198

      • short-run comparisons, 7.78, 7.199–7.213(t)

      • single-stage indices, 7.211–7.213

      • statistical metadata, 7.79, 8.16

      • superlative and exact hedonic indices, 7.179–7.188, 21.63–21.69

      • targeted mean imputation, 7.90–7.104(t)

      • two-stage indices, 7.211–7.213

      • unavailable matched items, 7.71–7.79

    • Quality change. See also Quality adjustment

      • adjusting prices, 1.209–1.212

      • assessing product quality at supply, 7.66–7.69

      • conceptual issues, 7.43–7.70

      • cost differences, 1.233–1.234

      • evaluation of, 1.213–1.218

      • explicit adjustments, 1.232–1.237

      • fixed-input output price index, 7.44–7.51

      • fixed-output input price index, 7.52–7.54

      • hedonic approach, 1.235–1.237. See also Hedonic method

      • implicit methods, 1.219–1.231

      • issues, 7.1–7.13

      • matched models method, 7.14–7.32

      • missing products, 7.15–7.22

      • nature of quality change, 7.37–7.42

      • new and disappearing items, 21.2–21.11

      • new products, 7.27–7.32

      • nonoverlapping qualities, 1.224–1.231

      • over-lapping qualities, 1.219–1.223

      • quantity adjustments, 1.232

      • sampling issues, 7.23–7.26

      • technology changes, 7.58–7.65

      • temporarily missing products, 7.33–7.34

    • Quality change bias, 11.34–11.37

    • Quality management, 12.75–12.78

    • Quality management models, 12.89–12.90

    • Quality management systems, 12.79–12.86

    • Quality of data collection

      • algorithms, 12.52–12.53

      • auditors, 12.27–12.28, 12.39–12.41

      • backchecking, 12.33–12.38

      • continuity, 12.19–12.20

      • data entry queries, 12.21–12.25

      • dispersion index report, 12.50

      • feedback, 12.26

      • importance of, 12.11

      • monitoring data collection, 12.29–12.32

      • process auditing, 12.33–12.38

      • quality checks, 12.27–12.53

      • quote report, 12.51

      • reports, 12.47–12.49

      • training programs, 12.12–12.16

      • transaction descriptions, 12.17–12.18

    • Quantity adjustment, 1.232, 7.113–7.117

    • Quantity index, 1.29, (g)

    • Quantity relative, (g)

    • Quantity reversal test, 1.62, 16.48, (g)

    • Quantity weights, 1.189, 4.9–4.11, (g)

    • Quantity weights symmetry test, 16.114

    • Questionnaire design, 6.36–6.41

    • Quote report, 12.51

    • Quoted prices, 10.122

    • Random sampling, 1.191–1.197, 5.4, 5.21, 5.64, 7.186

    • Ranking method, 5.75(t)

    • Ratio of average prices, 1.141, 1.144. See also Dutot index

    • Ratio of harmonic means, (g)

    • Ratio of harmonic means price index, (g)

    • Rebased Young index, 15.61

    • Rebasing, (g). See also Reweighting

    • Rebates, 6.69–6.80, (g)

    • Record-keeping units, 1.182

    • Regional PPIs, 2.66–2.67

    • Registers, 1.252–1.253, 4.39–4.40, 4.56

    • Repeat recent real sale, 6.83

    • Replacement product, 1.214, 1.239–1.241, 8.43–8.45, (g)

      • quality adjustment, 7.15

      • treatment of missing products, 9.55–9.63(t)

    • Replacement universe, 8.4, 8.53–8.54, 21.3, 21.6

    • Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes

      • Data Module, 12.75

    • Representative item, (g)

    • Representative product basket, 15.12

    • Representative revenue shares, 15.55

    • Resampling, 1.206–1.208, 8.41–8.42. See also Sample rotation

    • Residential building construction industry, 10.147–10.157

    • Resource-cost quality adjustment, 7.43, 7.51, 7.54– 7.65, 7.70

    • Retail trade industry

    • treatment of products, 10.9, 10.167–10.181

    • Retail turnover, 1.255, 4.43, 4.45

    • Retrospective superlative index, 9.146

    • Revenue, (g)

    • Revenue function, 17.18, 18.5, 21.35

    • Revenue maximizers, 1.87–1.88, 1.96, 1.155, 17.101, 20.54

    • Revenue weights, 1.133–1.134, 1.244–1.256. See also Value weights

      • administrative data, 1.254

      • business register, 1.252–1.253

      • censuses, 1.245–1.246

      • customs records, 1.256

      • national accounts, 1.250–1.251

      • surveys, 1.247–1.249

      • turnover, 1.255

      • uses of, 1.244

    • Revolutionary goods, 1.242–1.243, 4.62–4.64, 8.20, 8.34, (g)

    • Reweighting, 1.374–1.380, (g). See also Weights, updating

    • frequency of, 9.110–9.113

    • Road construction industry, 10.158–10.160

    • Rolling-year indices, 1.171

    • seasonal products, 22.7–22.8, 22.46–22.54(f)(t), 22.55–22.63(f)(t), 22.91–22.98(t)

    • Root mean square error, 5.31, (g)

    • ROSC. See Reports on the Observance of Standards

    • and Codes Data Module

    • Rothwell formula, 10.18–10.21, 22.87

    • Rothwell index, 22.11, 22.87–22.89(f)

    • Sample allocation, 5.55–5.62

    • Sample augmentation, 8.31–8.37(t), (g)

    • Sample maintenance, 5.85–5.95

    • Sample rebasing, 8.27–8.30

    • Sample rotation, 1.241, 5.87–5.88, 8.11–8.14, 8.27– 8.30, 8.42, (g)

    • Sample selection, 1.315–1.322, 5.63–5.84

    • Sample space, 8.6–8.10, 8.38

    • Sample structure, 5.42–5.49

    • Sampled products, 1.136

    • Sampling

      • bias, 1.194–1.196, 11.11–11.15

      • clustering of price-forming units, 5.50

      • cut-off sampling, 5.30–5.33

      • error, 11.11–11.15. See also Sampling error

      • introducing a new sample of establishments, 5.89– 5.95

      • multitiered stratification, 5.34

      • objectives of price survey, 5.7–5.13

      • overview, 5.1–5.5

      • price collection issues, 6.89–6.91

      • price survey sampling problems, 5.6

      • prices, 1.188–1.190

      • probability vs nonprobability sampling, 5.16–5.29

      • product selection, 5.74–5.79(t)

      • purposive, 1.192–1.197, 5.80–5.83

      • quality adjustment issues, 7.23–7.26

      • random, 1.191–1.197, 5.4, 5.21, 5.64, 7.186

      • recording product specifications, 5.84

      • recruiting establishments, 5.73

      • resampling, 1.206–1.208, 8.41–8.42. See also Sample rotation

      • sample allocation, 5.55–5.62

      • sample design, 5.14–5.62

      • sample maintenance, 5.85–5.95

      • sample rotation, 5.87–5.88

      • sample selection, 5.63–5.84

      • sample structure, 5.42–5.49

      • sampling frames, 1.193, 4.66, 5.1–5.3, 5.35–5.41

      • selection of establishments, 5.66–5.72(t)

      • strategies, 5.96–5.102

      • stratification, 5.51–5.54

      • techniques, 5.16–5.34

      • transaction selection, 5.74–5.79(t)

    • Sampling approach

      • elementary indices, 20.56–20.74

    • Sampling error, 5.10, 11.11–11.15, 11.28–11.32, 20.13, (g)

    • Sampling fractions, 4.36, 4.48, 4.57

    • Sampling frame, 1.193, 4.66, 5.1–5.3, 5.35–5.41, (g)

    • Sampling intervals, 4.57, 5.40, 5.67–5.69, 5.76

    • Sampling issues matching and, 8.1, 8.3–8.15

    • Sauerbeck price index, (g)

    • Schultz midyear price index, 19.23–19.24(t)

    • Scientific sampling, 1.317. See also Probability sampling

    • Scope, (g)

    • SDDS. See Special Data Dissemination Standard

    • Seasonal adjustment, 13.14–13.20, 22.12, 22.50, 22.61, 22.91–22.93

    • Seasonal baskets, 22.87

    • Seasonal products, 1.168–1.172, 22.1–22.4, (g)

      • adjustment factors, 22.57–22.59(f)

      • agricultural, 10.18–10.26

      • annual basket indices, 22.78–22.86(t), 22.97

      • annual price index, 10.27–10.28

      • Bean and Stine Type C index, 22.87–22.89

      • carryforward of unavailable prices, 22.78–22.84(f)(t)

      • examples of, 22.3

      • forecasting rolling-year indices, 22.91–22.97(f)(t)

      • imputation of unavailable prices, 22.78–22.86(f)(t)

      • index number theory, 22.6

      • maximum overlap month-to-month price indices, 22.63–22.77(t)

      • month-to-month index, 22.9–22.11, 22.98

      • predicting rolling-year index, 22.55–22.62(f)(t)

      • price collection, 6.116

      • product data set, 22.14–22.15(t)

      • rolling-year indices, 22.7–22.8, 22.12, 22.45–22.54(f)(t), 22.98

      • Rothwell index, 22.11, 22.87–22.89(f), 22.94–22.95

      • sources of fluctuations in prices and quantities, 22.2

      • strongly seasonal commodities, 22.1, 22.4, 22.9, 22.16

      • systematic biases, 22.4

      • Turvey’s artificial set, 22.5(t), 22.14–22.15

      • weakly seasonal commodities, 22.1

      • year-over-year annual indices, 22.35–22.44(t)

      • year-over-year monthly indices, 22.6–22.9, 22.16–22.34(t), 22.54, 22.56–22.57, 22.98

    • Seasonally adjusted approximate rolling-year index, 22.58–22.61(f)

    • Seasonally adjusted indices, 22.93–22.94(t)

    • Sector, (g)

    • SEHI. See Superlative and exact hedonic indices

    • Selection errors, 11.14

    • Semifinished products, 3.6, 10.71

    • Semilogarithmic functional form, 21.83

    • Services, (g)

    • Services sector, 3.3

    • value-added deflators, 19.44–19.47(t)

    • Shipbuilding industry treatment of products, 10.6, 10.117–10.138

    • Shipment price, 3.15–3.16, (g)

    • Short-run comparisons, 7.78, 7.199–7.213(t)

    • Short-term change Laspeyres price index, (g)

    • Short-Term Indicators Regulation, 2.56

    • Short-term links, 9.131–9.134

    • Simple random sampling, 5.21

    • Single-stage indices, 7.211–7.213, 18.33

    • SNA. See System of National Accounts

    • Social transfers in kind, 14.29, 14.31

    • Software consultancy industry treatment of products, 10.9, 10.264–10.271

    • Special Data Dissemination Standard, 13.50

    • Specification pricing, 1.327, 6.83, (g)

    • SPI. See Supply Price Index

    • Splicing, (g). See also Linking

    • Spot market price, 3.22–3.24, (g)

    • Spreadsheets, 12.59–12.60

    • Staff quality checks by, 12.42–12.46

    • Stage of processing, 1.12, 2.63, 14.49–14.52, (g)

    • Stage of production, 1.12, 2.64, (g)

    • Standard deviation, 5.56, 9.164, 9.167

    • Standard errors, 7.134, 20.76, 21.92

    • Statistical metadata system, 8.16

    • Statistical Office of the European Communities, 6.16

    • Statistical offices, 4.45–4.46, 9.16–9.17, 12.11, 12.15, 12.54, 12.63, 12.75–12.76, 13.62

    • Statistical units, 1.182–1.183

    • characteristics of, 3.49–3.52

    • identifying sample units, 3.53–3.57

    • Steel mill industry treatment of products, 10.5, 10.71–10.79

    • Stochastic approach, 16.77–16.96, (g)

      • early unweighted approach, 16.77–16.82

      • elementary indices, 20.75–20.82

      • overview, 16.6

      • unweighted, 1.82–1.83

      • uses of, 1.80–1.81

      • weighted, 1.84–1.86, 16.83–16.96

    • Stratification, 5.51–5.54

    • Stratification variables, 5.11

    • Structured product descriptions, 3.44

    • Subaggregate indices, 13.35–13.40

    • Subsidies on products, (g)

    • Subsidized prices, 1.180, 3.30–3.33, (g)

    • Substitution bias, 1.88, 1.116, 11.40–11.47, 17.24–17.25, (g)

    • Substitution effect, 1.37, 1.39, 1.99, 17.28

    • Superlative and exact hedonic indices, 7.179–7.188, 21.63–21.69

    • Superlative index, (g)

      • aggregation, 18.32–18.38

      • approximation properties, 17.55–17.60

      • approximations to, 17.88–17.99

      • choice of, 1.107–1.109, 17.55–17.60

      • defined, 17.34

      • estimating theoretical output price indices, 1.99– 1.103

      • features of, 1.16

      • final-demand commodities, 19.16(t)

      • hedonic indices, 21.63–21.69

      • output price indices, 17.43–17.54

      • as symmetric indices, 1.104–1.106

    • Superlative output price indices, 17.43–17.60

    • Supply and Use Table, 14.8, 14.12, 14.43–14.45(t), 14.53

    • Supply Price Index, 14.45, 14.59

    • Supply side hedonic prices and, 21.18–21.21

    • Surcharge, 3.38–3.42, (g)

    • Surveys, 1.247–1.249, 4.53–4.55

    • collection techniques, 6.35

    • postal surveys, 6.43–6.49

    • SUT. See Supply and Use Table

    • Symmetric index, (g)

    • averages of fixed-basket indices, 15.19–15.33

    • superlative indices, 1.104–1.106, 15.33

    • Symmetric index (continued) uses of, 1.50–1.54

    • Symmetry tests, 16.45–16.49, 16.109–16.114, 20.32

    • System of National Accounts, 14.7, 14.13–14.15, 14.21–14.42, (g)

    • System of price statistics

      • capital formation, 14.39–14.40(t)

      • constructing supply and use flows system from accounting data, 14.16–14.44

      • consumption, 14.28–14.38(t)(b)

      • CPI vs PPI as measure of inflation, 14.55–14.57

      • establishments, 14.14–14.15

      • external trade, 14.41–14.42(t)

      • framework for, 14.65(t)

      • GDP deflator, 14.62–14.63

      • institutional units, 14.13–14.15(b)

      • intermediate consumption price indices, 14.45(t)

      • international comparisons of goods and services expenditure, 14.66–14.68(t)

      • labor services price indices, 14.64(t)

      • national accounts, 14.6–14.9

      • net output PPIs, 14.46–14.48

      • PPI variants, 14.45–14.52(t)

      • price indices, 14.2

      • price indices for final uses, 14.61

      • price indices for total supply, 14.58–14.60

      • production, 14.21–14.27(t)

      • recording transactions in goods and services, 14.17–14.20

      • relationship of PPI to other price indices, 14.53– 14.54(t)

      • stage of processing PPIs, 14.49–14.52

      • supply and use of goods and services, 14.10–14.12

      • timing of transactions, 14.18

      • valuation, 14.19–14.20

      • value-added deflators, 14.46–14.48

      • value aggregates, 14.1

    • Systematic sampling, 5.21

    • Target index, 9.75–9.77

    • Target seasonally adjusted annual index, 22.51

    • Targeted mean imputation, 1.229, 7.90–7.104(t)

    • Tax revenue sources, 4.61

    • Tax switching, 2.47

    • Taxes on products, 14.19, 14.23, (g)

    • Technology changes quality adjustment issues, 7.58–7.65

    • Telecommunications industry treatment of products, 10.9, 10.182–10.198 (Worksheet 10.1)

    • Telephone data surveys, 6.50–6.51

    • Telephone interviews, 6.55

    • Temporarily missing bias, 11.39

    • Temporarily missing products, 7.33

    • quality adjustment issues, 7.35–7.36

    • Test approach, 15.19, 16.1, (g)

    • Test of determinateness as to prices, 16.130

    • Theoretical characteristics price indices, 21.53–21.54

    • Theoretical output price index, 1.94–1.103, 17.12, 17.24–17.42, 21.45

      • estimating by superlative indices, 1.99–1.103, 17.55–17.60

      • maximizing behavior, 1.94

      • optimizing behavior, 1.94

      • pure price index, 1.95

      • upper and lower bounds, 1.96–1.98

    • Theoretical price index, 1.88, 1.91–1.92, 17.22

    • Theoretically ideal elementary index number formula, 20.11

    • Theory of consumer behavior, 1.37

    • Theory of the firm, 1.38

    • Time aggregation error, 20.13

    • Time aggregation problem, 20.10

    • Time reversal test, 1.62, 9.25, 15.20, 16.47, 16.112, 16.135, 20.35, (g)

    • uses of, 1.65–1.67

    • Törnqvist price index, (g). See also Törnqvist-Theil price index

      • as approximation to economic output price index, 17.32–17.37

      • defined, 1.53

      • midyear price indices, 19.23–19.26(t)

      • national Törnqvist output price index, 18.23

      • superlative index, 1.100–1.101

      • test performance, 16.63

      • Törnqvist formula, 15.81, 20.49

    • Törnqvist-Theil price index

      • bilateral indices, 16.123–16.132

      • national Törnqvist intermediate input price index, 18.27

      • proof of optimality, 16.138–16.147

    • Total factor productivity, 2.68, (g)

    • Total output price index, 14.59

    • Total Quality Management, 12.80

    • Total supply price indices, 14.60

    • TQM. See Total Quality Management

    • Training programs

      • compilers and collectors, 12.68–12.71

      • requirements, 12.66–12.73

    • Transaction, (g)

    • Transaction price, 1.178, 2.39, 5.9, (g). See also Actual market transaction price

    • Transaction weights, 4.47–4.66

    • Transfer price, 6.88, 17.4, (g). See also Intra-company transfer price

    • Transitivity, (g)

    • Transitivity in prices for fixed value weights, 16.113

    • Transitivity test, 9.25, 16.135

    • “True” index, 1.161, (g)

    • Turnover, (g)

    • Turvey’s artificial set, 22.5, 22.14–22.15

    • Two-level aggregation system, 8.50

    • Two-stage aggregation, 18.32–18.38

    • Two-stage indices, 7.211–7.213, 19.16, (t)

    • Two-stage Laspeyres price index, 18.33, (g)

    • Two-stage sampling, 5.8, 5.49

    • Unequivocal price index, 15.25, (g)

    • Unequivocal quantity index, 16.67–16.68

    • Unilateral index number theory, 16.4

    • Unilateral price indices axiomatic approach, 16.11–16.30

    • Unimportant industries and products, 4.21–4.22

    • Unique product, (g) price collection, 6.83–6.86

    • Unit revenue function, 17.40

    • Unit value bias, 1.179, 11.45

    • Unit value index, 9.71–9.72, (g)

    • Unit value method, 10.192

    • Unit value “mix” problem, (g)

    • Unit value price, 6.8–6.9

    • Unit values, 1.154, 6.87, 20.10

    • United Nations

      • Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics, 13.3, 13.48–13.51

      • Statistical Commission, 2.17, 2.21

      • website, 13.3

    • Units of measurement test, 9.25, 16.110

    • Universe, (g)

    • Unweighted hedonic index, 21.70–21.71

    • Unweighted index number formula, 20.20, 21.70–21.71

    • Unweighted stochastic approach, 16.77–16.82

    • Upper-level index, (g)

    • Upper-level substitution bias, 11.41–11.42

    • Use of income account, 14.16, 14.28(t), 14.37–14.38(t)

    • User consultation, 13.69–13.80

    • advisory committee role, 13.75–13.77

    • explanation of PPI uses, 13.69–13.70

    • index quality issues, 13.78–13.80

    • presentation of methodology, 13.71–13.74

    • User cost price, 10.203

    • User-value quality adjustment, 7.43

    • Validation checks, 12.21

    • Valuation basis, 1.293

    • Valuation principles, 14.19–14.20

    • Value, (g)

    • Value added, (g)

      • aggregation, 1.121–1.122

      • defined, 17.1

      • GDP estimation, 1.93

    • Value-added deflator, 1.93, 1.117–1.119, 14.46–14.48

      • aggregation, 18.39–18.56

      • for the agriculture sector, 19.36–19.39(t)

      • double deflation method for constructing real value added, 18.49–18.56

      • for and establishment, 17.77–17.87

      • for the manufacturing sector, 19.40–19.43(t)

      • for the services sector, 19.44–19.47(t)

    • Value-added PPI, (g) uses of, 1.3

    • Value-added tax, (g)

    • Value aggregates, 14.1. See also Elementary aggregates

    • product test, 15.7–15.11

    • Value function, 21.16, 21.21

    • Value updating, (g)

    • Value weights, 1.189, 4.5–4.8, (g)

    • Van Ijzeren additive percentage change decomposition, 19.28–19.29(t)

    • Van Ijzeren decomposition factor, 19.28–19.29(t)

    • Variance, 5.6, 5.10, 5.56–5.61

    • VAT. See Value-added tax

    • Virtual corporation, 1.183, 3.13–3.14, 3.53–3.54, (g)

    • Volume index, (g)

    • Voorburg Group, 2.33

    • Wages index linking, 2.11

    • Walsh price index, (g)

      • defined, 1.52

      • final-demand commodities, 19.16(t)

      • midyear price indices, 17.89, 19.23–19.25(t)

      • pure price index theory and, 15.25–15.32

      • representativity bias, 1.110–1.111

      • superlative index, 1.104–1.109, 17.48

      • test performance, 16.62

      • Walsh formula, 15.19

    • Weight property, 16.48

    • Weight reference period, 1.269, 4.23–4.27, 9.83, (g)

    • Weighted arithmetic-average price index, (g appendix)

    • Weighted stochastic approach, 16.83–16.96

    • Weighted least squares estimator, 7.172

    • Weighting

      • deriving pattern, 1.303–1.314

      • elementary aggregates, 1.139–1.140, 9.11–9.15

      • hedonic regressions, 21.86–21.90

    • Weighting tests, 16.117–16.122

    • Weights, (g) classification system, 4.17–4.20

    • Weights (continued)

      • coverage of, 4.28–4.31

      • within elementary aggregates, 9.11–9.15

      • from establishments, 4.58–4.59

      • explicit weights, 4.48–4.52

      • frequency of reweighting, 9.110–9.113

      • household enterprises, 4.65–4.66

      • implicit weights, 4.48–4.52

      • introduction of new weights, 9.107–9.109

      • net output weights, 4.12–4.16

      • new products, 4.62–4.64

      • partial reweighting, 9.124–9.130

      • probability sampling, 4.57–4.58

      • product weights, 4.47–4.66

      • quantity weights, 4.9–4.11

      • role of, 4.2–4.4

      • selecting and determining, 4.67–4.76

      • sources of, 4.32–4.46, 4.53–4.66

      • transaction weights, 4.47–4.66

      • unimportant industries and products, 4.21–4.22

      • update, 1.57, 4.21, 5.86, 9.143. See also Reweighting

      • value weights, 4.5–4.8

    • Wholesale price index, (g) origins of, 1.13 uses of, 1.14, 2.49–2.50

    • Wholesale turnover, 1.255, 4.43, 4.45

    • Wireless telecommunications industry treatment of products, 10.9, 10.182–10.198 (Worksheet 10.1)

    • WLS. See Weighted least squares estimator

    • WPI. See Wholesale price index

    • X-11 seasonal adjustment, 22.91, 22.93(f)

    • XPI. See Export Price Index

    • Year-over-year annual indices, 22.35–22.44(t)

    • Year-over-year monthly indices, 22.7–22.9, 22.16–22.34(t), 22.98

    • Young index, 1.42–1.45, 15.55–15.65, (g and g appendix)

      • factoring, 9.94–9.96

      • formula, 1.42, 15.55

      • geometric, 1.46–1.49

      • limitations, 15.63

      • rebased Young index, 15.61

      • relationship with its time antithesis, 15.105–15.108

      • relationship with Lowe index, 9.89–9.93, 15.55

      • seasonally adjusted, 22.91–22.97(f)(t)

      • test properties, 16.133–16.137

      • time antithesis of Young index, 15.64

    • YPI. See Total output price index

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