- Kamau Thugge, and Anthony Boote
- Published Date:
- December 1999
Major non-Paris Club bilateral creditors include China, Kuwait, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Russia, and Saudi Arabia. Kuwait sometimes participates in Paris Club reschedulings.
That is, countries that receive funds from IDA but not from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD).
According to the World Bank’s Debtor Reporting System, the ratio rose to 11½ percent in 1995 reflecting the clearance of Zambia’s arrears to the IMF. Excluding Zambia, it remained at about 8 percent in 1995.
A target range for the NPV debt-export ratio would be specified (plus or minus 10 percentage points of the target) to allow for some variability in the outcome without the need for creditors to adjust their committed action.
Such problems should also be reflected in the current NPV debt-to-exports ratio.
Risk can be reduced through such action as participation in investment insurance programs such as Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency.