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Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
April 2009
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    ANNEX Monitoring the MDGs: Selected Indicators

    This annex contains DataLinks, a feature that provides access to the Excel files corresponding to each figure. To make use of this feature, simply locate the link below each figure (beginning with http://dx.doi.org), and type it into your Internet browser.

    Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

    Projections based on the new 2005 purchasing power parity (PPP) poverty data reveal that the share of people living on less than $1.25 a day will fall from 41.7 percent in 1990 to 15.1 percent in 2015. The greatest poverty reduction has occurred in East Asia and the Pacific and is largely attributable to China.

    If China were excluded from the global calculation, the drop in poverty would be less drastic, from 35.2 percent in 1990 to 18.2 percent in 2015. East Asia and the Pacific exceeded its target; Latin America and the Caribbean and South Asia are projected to be on target.

    MDG 1 FIGURE 1Poverty rates by region, based on new PPPs

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F1

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Extreme poverty is defined as the proportion of individuals in developing countries who live on less than $1.25 a day (based on purchasing power parity 2005 constant prices). Poverty estimates are computed based on data covering 96 percent of developing countries’ population. MDG 1 Figure 1 shows that Sub-Saharan Africa lags behind, and based on current projections, this region will reduce poverty by only 20 percent between 1990 and 2015.

    MDG 1 FIGURE 2Proportion of countries on track to achieve the poverty reduction target

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F2

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Of the 84 countries with available data (out of 144), 45 have already achieved or are on track to meet the poverty reduction target, but 40 are either off track or seriously off track. Four of 8 countries in East Asia and the Pacific, and 4 of 5 countries in South Asia with available data are not on track. Fifteen of 21 countries in Europe and Central Asia have achieved or are on track to achieve the target. Ten of the 12 fragile states with available data are not on track, so the prospect is bleak for fragile states to meet MDG 1. Fragile states are low-income countries or territories with no Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) score or a CPIA score of 3.2 or less.

    TARGET 1.A Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1.25 a day

    TARGET 1.B Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people

    TARGET 1.C Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

    MDG 1 FIGURE 3Share of poorest and richest quintiles in national consumption

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F3

    Source: World Bank staff estimates.

    Poverty data based on the new PPP estimates reveal that for all regions, the richest population quintile has a 40 percent or larger share in national consumption, which is far greater than the 2 to 9 percent consumed by the poorest quintile. Sub-Saharan Africa and the fragile states have the greatest disparity between the richest and poorest quintiles.

    MDG 1 FIGURE 4Proportion of countries on track to halve under-five malnutrition

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F4

    Source: World Bank staff estimates based on data from UNICEF.

    The prevalence of child malnutrition is measured by the percentage of children under the age of five whose weight-to-age ratio is more than two standard deviations below the international median. Standards of child growth were revised in 2006, and estimates of child malnutrition that conform to the new standard are being computed. The current assessment of progress toward MDGs achievement is based on child malnutrition estimates conforming to old child growth standards. According to this assessment, more than half of the countries with available data are not on track to achieve the target by 2015.

    MDG 1 FIGURE 5Ratio of employment to population, by gender

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F5

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    The employment-to-population ratio is the proportion of a country’s working-age population (ages 15 years and older) that is employed. Between 1991 and 2006, this ratio fell in most regions, with the exception of the Middle East and North Africa for both genders and Latin America and Caribbean for females. For all regions, the ratio has consistently been lower for females than males.

    Achieve Universal Primary Education

    Progress toward the primary education goal has varied across regions. East Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean have both progressed well in achieving the primary completion rate target, although some countries in these regions are not on track. Europe and Central Asia and the Middle East and North Africa have had slow progress. Neither Sub-Saharan Africa nor South Asia is on track to achieve the target, but a few countries in these regions have shown significant progress.

    MDG 2 FIGURE 1Primary school completion rates, by gender

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F6

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    The primary school completion rate is the percentage of children completing the last year of primary schooling. It is computed by dividing the total number of students in the last grade of primary school minus repeaters in that grade by the total number of children of official completing age. Under certain circumstances, the computation can overestimate the actual proportion of a given cohort completing primary school and sometimes exceeds 100 percent.

    TARGET 2.A Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling

    MDG 2 FIGURE 2Proportion of countries on track to meet the primary education target

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F7

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Seventeen of 24 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, 13 of 18 countries in Europe and Central Asia, and 12 of 14 countries in East Asia and the Pacific (for which data exist) have already met or are on track to meet the target. Other regions have shown little progress; 3 of 5 countries in South Asia and 33 of 36 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are not on track. Fragile states also lag behind—only 3 of 22 countries with available data have achieved the target.

    MDG 2 FIGURE 3Literacy rates, ages 15–24, by gender

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F8

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    The youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15–24 that can, with comprehension, both read and write a short, simple statement about their everyday life. For countries with data available for the 2005–07 period, literacy rates in most Sub-Saharan African countries were lower than 80 percent for both males and females. All countries in that region besides Liberia have lower literacy rates for females than males.

    MDG 2 FIGURE 4Adjusted net enrollment ratio in primary education

    Percent

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F9

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Adjusted net enrollment rates in primary education measure the proportion of children of official primary school age who are enrolled in any level of education. Although higher values indicate that more children of primary school age attend school, these rates do not capture issues such as repetition and late enrollment, as long as children enter school before the official age of completion. For all regions except Sub-Saharan Africa, net enrollment ratios met or exceeded 90 percent in 2006. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the rate only rose from 58 to 71 percent from 1990 to 2006.

    Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

    Most of the progress in achieving gender parity in education has been made at the primary school level, but regions such as East Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean have had fairly good progress at all education levels. Female participation in the labor force has increased, but labor force participation rates, occupational levels, and wages reveal continuing significant gender gaps.

    MDG 3 FIGURE 1Gender disparity at primary and secondary education, by regions

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F10

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Gender disparity is measured by the ratio of girls to boys enrolled in primary and secondary schools. Most regions are on track to achieve this target by 2015.

    MDG 3 FIGURE 2Gender parity disaggregated by education levels

    Ratio of female to male enrollment, 2006

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F11

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    East Asia and the Pacific and Europe and Central Asia are close to reaching the gender parity target for all education levels. The Latin America and Caribbean region is well on track to achieve the target at the primary level, but gender bias against boys is apparent at the secondary and tertiary levels. Regions with higher primary and secondary gender parity ratios have exhibited better performance at the tertiary level. South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa lag behind at all levels for this target, particularly at the tertiary level.

    TARGET 3.A Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015

    MDG 3 FIGURE 3Proportion of countries on track to achieve gender parity in education

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F12

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Twenty-five of 27 countries for which data exist in Latin America and the Caribbean have achieved gender parity in primary and secondary education. Eighteen of 21 countries in Europe and Central Asia and 15 of 17 countries in East Asia and the Pacific with available data are on track or have achieved this target. In Sub-Saharan Africa, 20 of 37 countries for which data exist are not on track, and another 10 countries lack data. Ten of the 22 fragile states (for which data exist) are seriously off track, and only 6 have achieved the target. Combining primary and secondary education for some countries masks gender bias at either the primary or secondary level of education. This progress assessment also does not take into account the gender bias for boys, but male underenrollment is a concern in many countries, especially at the secondary level. The methodology for assessing this target is currently being revised.

    MDG 3 FIGURE 4Women in the labor force

    Share of female in total employment (%)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F13

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    The total labor force participation rate measures the proportion of the population between ages 15 and 64 that is economically active, employed, or actively seeking a job, while the share of females in total employment shows the extent to which women are active in the labor force. The percentage of females in the labor force is below 50 percent for all regions and is lowest in the Middle East and North Africa and in South Asia. South Asia showed no improvement in the ratio from 1990 to 2006, while several regions had slightly lower ratios in 2006 than in 1990. The only regions to show improvements were the Middle East and North Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean.

    MDG 3 FIGURE 5Disparity in occupational level by gender

    Percent

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F14

    Source: World Bank Enterprise Surveys.

    The Enterprise Surveys indicate that about half of the firms in East Asia and the Pacific have female participation in ownership, compared to only 13 percent in South Asia and 18 percent in the Middle East and North Africa. The percentage of women in senior positions is far smaller, ranging from only 2 percent in South Asia to 13 percent in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Reduce Child Mortality

    The under-five mortality rate has fallen in all regions since 1990, and some regions have come close to being on track to meet MDG Target 4.A. However, in most countries, the rate has not declined fast enough to meet the target by 2015, and over three-quarters of countries with available data are not on track. Nearly half of all deaths of children under five occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Malnutrition, as well as lack of access to water and sanitation infrastructure, contributes to the poor health and death of young children. The leading cause of childhood deaths, including pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, and measles, can easily be prevented through basic health service improvements and interventions, such as insecticide-treated mosquito nets and vaccinations.

    MDG 4 FIGURE 1Under-five mortality rate, by region

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F15

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    The under-five mortality rate is the probability that a newborn will die before reaching age five (expressed as a rate per 1,000). At an aggregate level, none of the regions is on track to achieve the under-five mortality target, though all regions except South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa have come close. However, as MDG 4 Figure 2 shows, most countries are off track. Regional estimates of child mortality are based on data covering 99.9 percent of developing countries’ total population.

    TARGET 4.A Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

    MDG 4 FIGURE 2Proportion of countries on track to achieve the child mortality target

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F16

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Data are available for all but 2 countries on the under-five child mortality rate, but only 33 of the 142 countries with available data have achieved or are on track to achieve the target by 2015. None of the 46 Sub-Saharan African countries with available data is on track to reach the target. None of the fragile states has attained the target and only 1 of 34 is on track to reduce by two-thirds the 1990 under-five mortality rate.

    MDG 4 FIGURE 3Proportion of countries on track for measles vaccination

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F17

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Assessment of measles immunization rates shows a more positive picture for some regions. Though an official target has not been set, assessment is based on a target of achieving a 95 percent measles immunization rate by 2015. Twenty-one of 23 Europe and Central Asian countries with available data have already achieved this target, while 6 of 8 South Asian countries are either on track or have already achieved the target. About half of the countries in East Asia and the Pacific are not on track. Sub-Saharan Africa and fragile states also lag behind.

    MDG 4 FIGURE 4Measles vaccination coverage

    Measles immunization rate (% of children ages 12–23 months)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F18

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Measles vaccination coverage is defined as the percentage of children ages 12–23 months who received measles vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey was administered. Since 1990, the coverage of measles vaccinations has increased in all six regions, with the greatest improvements occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Measles vaccination coverage in South Asia increased from 56 percent in 1990 to 71 percent in 2007. The vaccination rate for Europe and Central Asia (83 percent) surpassed the average rate for high-income countries (97 percent) in 2007.

    Improve Maternal Health

    Among all the MDGs, the least progress has been made in improving maternal health, and a full achievement of the MDG 5 targets remains a challenging task. Every year, more than 500,000 women die from complications during pregnancy, childbirth, or in the six weeks after delivery. Most of these women live in low-income countries. Progress in Sub-Saharan Africa—a region with the highest maternal mortality rate—has been negligible. Improving the access to and quality of births attended by skilled personnel, providing prenatal care, and reducing the number of pregnancies (particularly among adolescents) can all contribute to reducing the number of maternal deaths.

    MDG 5 FIGURE 1Maternal mortality rates

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F19

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Note: Only data for 2007 are available for attended births in Europe and Central Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

    The maternal mortality rate is the number of women who die from pregnancy-related complications during pregnancy or delivery, per 100,000 live births. Such statistics are very difficult to collect through surveys, and data reported here rely on modeling techniques developed by the World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, and United Nations Population Fund. The increased share of attended births contributes to declines in maternal mortality rates. See MDG 5 Figure 3 for information on attended births.

    TARGET 5.A Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

    TARGET 5.B Achieve by 2015 universal access to reproductive health

    MDG 5 FIGURE 2Contraceptive prevalence by income groups

    % of married women ages 15–49 using contraception

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F20

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    The contraceptive prevalence rate is the percentage of married women ages 15–49 who use, or whose sexual partners use, any form of contraception. This rate has increased for all income groups between 1990 and 2007, but is still quite low at only 33 percent for low-income countries in 2007.

    MDG 5 FIGURE 3Proportion of countries on track to achieve attended births target

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F21

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period. Increasing attended births helps decrease the maternal mortality rate. Twenty-one of 23 countries in Europe and Central Asia and 19 of 26 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have achieved the target to lower the nonattendance rate to 10 percent by 2015, but most South Asian and Sub-Saharan African countries are not on track.

    MDG 5 FIGURE 4Prenatal care coverage in South Asia

    Percent

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F22

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Maternal death is correlated with poor health care during pregnancy and childbirth. Prenatal care coverage is the percentage of women attended during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for pregnancy-related issues. One of the regions with the highest maternal mortality rates, South Asia, has shown improvements in the percentage of pregnant women who have received prenatal care at least once, increasing from 47 to 69 percent from 1990 to 2007. Although this shows progress, a healthy pregnancy requires much more than one or two prenatal visits. The number of women who received prenatal care at least four times increased only marginally, from 26 to 34 percent between the two years.

    MDG 5 FIGURE 5Adolescent fertility rate, by region

    Births per 1,000 women, ages 15–19

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F23

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Giving birth at an early age puts young women at an increased risk of pregnancy complications and, in some cases, death. The adolescent fertility rate is defined as the number of births per 1,000 women ages 15–19. From 1997 to 2007, the rate has marginally declined in all regions. The largest decrease between the two years is in Latin America and the Caribbean, where the rate dropped from 102 to 74. Progress was less dramatic in the most fertile region, Sub-Saharan Africa, where the rate only decreased from 141 to 134.

    Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Other Diseases

    In 2007, around 33 million people globally were living with HIV, and about 2 million people, the majority in Sub-Saharan Africa, died from the disease. Most countries face difficulty in reaching the MDG targets related to HIV/AIDS. Less than half of the individuals in these countries have correct knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention. Women from the poorest income quintile are the least knowledgeable. Achieving the target to halt and reverse the incidence of major diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis has also been challenging.

    MDG 6 FIGURE 1HIV prevalence rates and estimated deaths

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F24

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    HIV prevalence is the percentage of individuals ages 15–49 who are infected with the HIV virus. South Africa had the highest number of estimated deaths from AIDS (350,000) and a prevalence rate of 18.1 percent in 2007. Other Sub-Saharan African countries also exhibited high death rates and prevalence rates greater than 1 percent.

    MDG 6 FIGURE 2Proportion of population aged 15–24 years in Sub-Saharan Africa with comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge, by gender and income quintile

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F25

    Sources: HNPStats database, World Bank, based on household surveys.

    HIV/AIDS knowledge is defined as the percentage of individuals who have comprehensive, correct knowledge about HIV (ability to describe two ways to prevent infection and to reject three misconceptions concerning HIV). Estimates from household surveys in Sub-Saharan African countries such as Cameroon, Chad, and Mozambique reveal the disparity in knowledge about the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS by household income levels and gender of the respondents. Women from the poorest income quintile have the least amount of knowledge, while men from the richest income quintiles have the most knowledge. Men and women from the richest quintiles have more knowledge than their counterparts in the poorest quintile. A higher percentage of men and women in Cameroon have HIV/AIDS knowledge compared to Mozambique, and subsequently the prevalence and estimated death rates in Cameroon were both lower in 2007.

    TARGET 6.A Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

    TARGET 6.B Achieve by 2010 universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it

    TARGET 6.C Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

    MDG 6 FIGURE 3Tuberculosis detection and treatment

    Tuberculosis cases detected under DOTS (%)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F26

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    To effectively halt and lower the tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate, early detection and successful treatment of the disease are vital. The TB cases detected under the Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) increased dramatically in East Asia and the Pacific (40 to 77 percent) and South Asia (29 to 67 percent) from 2002 to 2007. The detection rate in Sub-Saharan Africa only rose marginally from 42 to 47 percent. The TB treatment success rate has fallen in Latin America and the Caribbean and Europe and Central Asia, but has slightly improved in the other regions.

    MDG 6 FIGURE 4Bednet use by children

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F27

    Source: Country household surveys.

    The majority of malaria cases that plague the developing world occur in tropical or subtropical regions. Malaria causes over 1 million deaths each year, predominantly in Sub-Saharan Africa, to children under age five. Because bednets protect humans from contact with mosquitoes, which are the vector for malaria transmission, they are one of the best malarial prevention strategies. In most countries, children in the richest quintile have a greater usage of bednets, but the reverse is true in Colombia, Ghana, Namibia, and Nigeria.

    Ensure Environmental Sustainability

    Based on current trends, the world and a few regions will meet the water access target by 2015. However, achieving the improved sanitation access target remains a challenge. There are disparities among regions, and South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa have made the least progress on both targets. Reducing deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions are important to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, global carbon dioxide emissions levels have gradually increased since 1990 and reached 28 billion metric tons in 2005. The rate of deforestation has been highest in Latin America and the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa—two regions that contain over 40 percent of the world’s forest area.

    MDG 7 FIGURE 1Population without access to an improved water source or sanitation facilities

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F28

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Access to sanitation refers to the percentage of population with at least adequate access to excreta facilities (private or shared, but not public) that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Access to improved sources of water refers to the percentage of population with reasonable access to a permanent source of safe water in their dwelling or within a reasonable distance from it. Regional estimates for both indicators are computed using country data covering 97 percent of developing countries’ total population. All regions but Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East and North Africa are on track to achieve the water access target, based on current trends. Prospects are bleaker for the sanitation access target, with only the Middle East and North Africa on track and Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia lagging far behind.

    TARGET 7.A Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources

    TARGET 7.B Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving by 2010 a significant reduction in the rate of loss

    TARGET 7.C Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

    TARGET 7.D Have achieved a significant improvement by 2020 in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

    MDG 7 FIGURE 2Proportion of countries on track to achieve the targets for access to improved water and sanitation

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F29

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Forty-nine percent of the developing countries with available data have achieved or are on track to achieve the improved water target, while 23 percent have achieved or are on track to achieve the improved sanitation target. Fourteen of 21 countries with available data in Europe and Central Asia have achieved the target to improve water access. In the Middle East and North Africa, 7 of 13 countries with available data are not on track. Progress has been much slower for the improved sanitation target, and no Sub-Saharan African country and almost two-thirds of countries in the other regions are not on track, based on available data.

    MDG 7 FIGURE 3CO2 emissions disaggregated by largest emitters and the rest of the world

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F30

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are derived from burning fossil energy and manufacturing cement. The United States, Euro Area, and Japan produce almost 75 percent of the CO2 emissions from all high-income countries. However, about half of the total global CO2 emissions comes from the developing world, particularly from China, the Russian Federation, and India. China’s share of global emissions has risen from 11 to 20 percent between 1990 and 2005.

    MDG 7 FIGURE 4Forest lost and gained

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F31

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Deforestation, resulting largely from land use change, has been about 13 million hectares a year, and net forest lost has been 7.3 million hectares. Because forests are important to mitigating climate change, deforestation creates challenges to fostering sustainable development. The fastest rates of forest lost from 1990 to 2005 were in Sub-Saharan Africa (7.1 percent), Latin America and the Caribbean (7.0 percent), and East Asia and the Pacific (1.6 percent). The other regions had increases in their forest areas.

    Develop a Global Partnership for Development

    According to preliminary estimates, the share of official development assistance (ODA) in GNI rose from 0.28 in 2007 to 0.30 in 2008, but falls below the 0.33 level reached in 2005. ODA in 2005 was boosted by the exceptional debt-relief initiatives for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC). Donors will need to increase programmable aid (which excludes debt relief) in order to meet the 2010 aid target to increase total aid by $50 billion overall and aid to Sub-Saha-ran Africa by $25 billion a year (in 2004 dollars). The HIPC Initiative and Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) have drastically decreased the debt burdens of many low-income countries, but maintaining long-term debt sustainability will be difficult. Mobile phone subscriptions have more than doubled in low- and middle-income countries, but large gaps remain for improving access to technologies such as broadband Internet. Substantial infrastructure investments by the private sector will facilitate the growth of information and communications infrastructure and access to mobile phone technology.

    MDG 8 FIGURE 1Evolution of global aid, as a percentage of GNI in DAC countries

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F32

    Source: OECD DAC database.

    In 2005, G-8 leaders at the Gleneagles Summit agreed to increase the annual aid allocations to developing countries by an additional $50 billion by 2010, compared with 2004. From 2005 to 2007, the ratio of ODA to gross national income for DAC donors fell from 0.33 to 0.28, but the ratio must be 0.35 in 2010 to meet the target. The total net ODA from DAC donors increased from 1990 to 2005, but has declined since then; aid in 2005 was high because of the one-time debt relief to Nigeria and Iraq.

    MDG 8 FIGURE 2Aid to small island states and landlocked developing countries

    ODA-to-GNI ratio (%)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F33

    Source: OECD DAC database.

    The ODA-to-GNI ratio for landlocked developing countries has fluctuated between 5 and 9 from 1990 to 2007 but has not changed much over the period. The ratio has decreased for small island states from 1990 to 2007.

    MDG 8 FIGURE 3Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services

    Debt service-to-export ratio

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F34

    Source: OECD DAC database.

    Debt relief under the HIPC Initiative reduced burdens of external debt service for 34 post-decision-point highly indebted poor countries. Assistance under the MDRI Initiative further reduced the external debt of 23 post-completion-point counties. High commodity prices and strong growth in the world economy before the onset of the global financial crisis have improved export revenues of many developing countries. The debt-service-to-export ratios for all developing country groups shown in the figure have declined since 1990, with low-income countries and HIPCs enjoying the largest declines.

    TARGET 8.A Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and financial system

    TARGET 8.B Address the special needs of the least developed countries

    TARGET 8.C Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing states

    TARGET 8.D Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term

    TARGET 8.E In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries

    TARGET 8.F In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications

    MDG 8 FIGURE 4Average tariff imposed by developed countries on least developed countries

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F35

    Sources: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, World Trade Organization, and International Trade Center.

    The average tariffs imposed by industrial countries on least developed countries’ (LDC) agricultural, textile, and clothing products have fallen from 1996 to 2006. Tariffs on agricultural products have decreased only slightly. Tariffs on clothing products have been the highest, and the rates of reduction the largest. Although these reductions eroded the preferential access to high-income markets that some LDCs had previously exclusively enjoyed, the overall reduction of tariffs benefit production and exporting sectors of all LDCs.

    MDG 8 FIGURE 5Cellular subscribers per 100 people

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7859-5_F36

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Compared with telephone mainlines, the number of mobile phone subscribers and Internet users has rapidly increased in low-and middle-income countries, although the levels remain much lower than those of high-income countries. Between 2004 and 2007, mobile phone subscribers increased from 3.7 to 23.1 per 100 people in low-income countries and 22.2 to 46.9 per 100 people in middle-income countries.

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    E C O - A U D I T

    Environmental Benefits Statement

    The World Bank is committed to preserving endangered forests and natural resources. The Office of the Publisher has chosen to print the Global Monitoring Report 2009 on recycled paper with 30 percent post-consumer waste, in accordance with the recommended standards for paper usage set by Green Press Initiative—a nonprofit program supporting publishers in using fiber that is not sourced from endangered forests. For more information, visit www.greenpressinitiative.org.

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    “A Development Emergency,” the title of this year’s Global Monitoring Report, the sixth in an annual series, could not be more apt. The global economic crisis, the most severe since the Great Depression, is rapidly turning into a human and development crisis. No region is immune. The poor countries are especially vulnerable, as they have the least cushion to withstand events. The crisis, coming on the heels of the food and fuel crises, poses serious threats to their hard-won gains in boosting economic growth and reducing poverty. It is pushing millions back into poverty and putting at risk the very survival of many. The prospect of reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015, already a cause for serious concern, now looks even more distant.

    A global crisis requires a global response. The crisis began in the financial markets of developed countries, so the first order of business must be to stabilize these markets and counter the recession that the financial turmoil has triggered. At the same time, strong and urgent actions are needed to counter the impact of the crisis on developing countries and help them restore strong growth while protecting the poor. Global Monitoring Report 2009, prepared jointly by the staff of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, provides a development perspective on the global economic crisis. It assesses the impact on developing countries—their growth, poverty reduction, and other MDGs. And it sets out priorities for policy response, both by developing countries themselves and by the international community. The report also focuses on the ways in which the private sector can be better mobilized in support of development goals, especially in the aftermath of the crisis.

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