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Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
April 2008
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    ANNEX: Monitoring the MDGs: Selected Indicators

    Goals and Targets from the Millennium Declaration

    GOAL 1ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER
    TARGET 1.AHalve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day
    TARGET 1.BAchieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people
    TARGET 1.CHalve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
    GOAL 2ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION
    TARGET 2.AEnsure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling
    GOAL 3PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN
    TARGET 3.AEliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and at all levels of education no later than 2015
    GOAL 4REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY
    TARGET 4.AReduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
    GOAL 5IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH
    TARGET 5.AReduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
    TARGET 5.BAchieve by 2015 universal access to reproductive health
    GOAL 6COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA, AND OTHER DISEASES
    TARGET 6.AHave halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
    TARGET 6.BAchieve by 2010 universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it
    TARGET 6.CHave halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
    GOAL 7ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
    TARGET 7.AIntegrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources
    TARGET 7.BReduce biodiversity loss, achieving by 2010 a significant reduction in the rate of loss
    TARGET 7.CHalve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
    TARGET 7.DHave achieved a significant improvement by 2020 in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers
    GOAL 8DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT
    TARGET 8.ADevelop further an open, rule-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and financial system (including a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction, nationally and internationally)
    TARGET 8.BAddress the special needs of the least-developed countries (including tariff- and quota-free access for exports of the least-developed countries; enhanced debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous official development assistance for countries committed to reducing poverty)
    TARGET 8.CAddress the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing states (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the 22nd special session of the General Assembly)
    TARGET 8.DDeal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures to make debt sustainable in the long term
    TARGET 8.EIn cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries
    TARGET 8.FIn cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications
    Source: United Nations. 2008. Report of the Secretary-General on the indicators for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals. E/CN.3/2008/29. New York.Note: The Millennium Development Goals and targets come from the Millennium Declaration, signed by 189 countries, including 147 heads of State and Government, in September 2000 (http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm) and from further agreement by member states at the 2005 World Summit (Resolution adopted by the General Assembly - A/RES/60/1). The goals and targets are interrelated and should be seen as a whole. They represent a partnership between the developed countries and the developing countries “to create an environment–at the national and global levels alike–which is conducive to development and the elimination of poverty.”

    Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

    Most recent global poverty projections anticipate that the proportion of people living in extreme poverty—on less than $1 a day—will fall from 29 percent in 1990 to 10 percent in 2015. Recently estimated purchasing parities for 2005 will inevitably affect calculation of poverty levels in developing countries but are not expected to change them significantly. Although extreme poverty has been reduced substantially since 1990, trends vary among the regions, with Sub-Saharan Africa lagging far behind the other regions in attaining MDG 1.

    MDG 1 figure 1Share of people living on less than $1 or $2 a day in 2004, and projections for 2015

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ Extreme poverty is defined as the proportion of individuals in developing countries who live on less than $1 a day (based on purchasing power parity 1993 constant prices). Poverty estimates are computed based on data covering 93 percent of developing countries’ population. MDG 1 Figure 1 shows that all regions except Sub-Saharan Africa are on track to halve that proportion between 1990 and 2015. On current trends, this region will reduce poverty by only 33 percent between 1990 and 2015. In 1990 South Asia had the second-highest proportion of people living on less than $1 a day (43 percent) but has made substantial progress in reducing poverty and on current trends may surpass the target in 2015. Most of the progress in this region can be attributed to India’s rapid growth over the past decade.

    MDG 1 figure 2Share of poorest and richest quintiles in national consumption

    Source: World Bank staff estimates.

    ◂ Consumption data reveal the inequality that exists between the richest and poorest population quintiles in different regions. Individual countries’ income distribution data is compiled together to create regional income distribution data, so both inter- and intracountry inequality can be assessed. The data use purchasing power parities based on 2005 prices and cover 93 percent of developing countries’ total population.

    TARGET 1.A Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day

    TARGET 1.B Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people

    TARGET 1.C Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

    MDG 1 figure 3Proportion of countries on track to achieve the poverty reduction target

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ Of the 71 countries with available data (out of 149), 24 have already achieved or are on track to meet the poverty reduction target, but 47 are either off track or seriously off track. Fifteen of 18 countries in Europe and Central Asia, and 11 of 20 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, are seriously off track. Since the 5 fragile states with available data are all seriously off track, there is no evidence to suggest that even 1 fragile state will meet MDG 1. Fragile states are low-income countries or territories with no CPIA score or a CPIA score of 3.2 or less.

    MDG 1 figure 4Annual changes invulnerable employment, 34 countries, 1990–2005

    Source: World Bank staff estimates.

    ▴ Vulnerable employment is the sum of contributing family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment. Data available at two points in time between 1990 and 2005 for 34 low- and middle-income countries highlight the diversity of patterns. Some countries witnessed a decline in vulnerable employment over time, while others experienced substantial increases. Countries that have faced severe shocks, such as financial crises in East Asia and the Pacific or Latin America and the Caribbean, over the period can be found in both groups. Transition economies can also be found in both groups.

    MDG 1 figure 5Proportion of countries on track to reduce under-five malnutrition by half

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ◂ The prevalence of child malnutrition is measured by the percentage of children under the age of five whose weight-to-age ratio is more than two standard deviations below the international median. Standards of child growth are currently being updated, but preliminary figures suggest that the global picture of malnutrition should not be significantly altered. The data covers 97 percent of developing countries’ total population and suggests that many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East and North Africa are seriously off track. However, most countries in South Asia are on track.

    Achieve Universal Primary Education

    On the primary school completion rate target, Sub-Saharan Africa is off track for both males and females, while South Asia is on track for females but off track for males. Nevertheless, net enrollment rates for male and female children in both regions have been steadily increasing since 1990. The other four regions are on track to achieve the primary school completion rate target for both males and females; 46 countries in these regions have already achieved full primary completion. In East Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, where primary school completion rates are already close to 100 percent, literacy rates for youth ages 15 to 24 are also close to 100 percent. Since 1990 significant progress has been observed in literacy rates, along with enrollment and primary school completion, in the Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia.

    MDG 2 figure 1Primary school completion rates

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ The primary school completion rate is the percentage of children completing the last year of primary schooling. It is computed by dividing the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus repeaters in that grade, by the total number of children of official completing age. Under certain circumstances, the computation can overestimate the actual proportion of a given cohort completing primary school and sometimes exceeds 100 percent. Country data used to compute regional primary completion rates cover 65 percent of total developing countries’ population.

    TARGET 2.A Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling

    MDG 2 figure 2Proportion of countries on track to meet the primary education target

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ Twelve of 14 countries in East Asia and the Pacific (for which data exist) have already achieved the target, but data are still missing for the other 10 countries. Sixteen of 25 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and 16 of 21 countries in Europe and Central Asia (for which data exist) have already met or are on track to meet the target. Conversely, most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are off track. In the Middle East and North Africa, 6 out of 10 countries (for which data exist) have already met or are on track to meet the target, but data are missing for the other 4 countries in this region. Fragile states and Sub-Saharan Africa record the largest proportions of countries off track or without data.

    MDG 2 figure 3Net enrollment rates in primary education

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ Primary school net enrollment rates measure the proportion of children of official school age who are enrolled in school, but the rates ignore effective attendance, repetitions, or the fact that children can start school above the official age as long as they enter school before the official age of completion. Net enrollment rates for male and female children have slightly decreased in East Asia and the Pacific but have remained stable or increased in the other regions since 2000. In South Asia and the Middle East and North Africa the gap between male and female net enrollment has narrowed, but enrollment rates for females are still lower than for males. In Sub-Saharan Africa net enrollment rates have risen steadily since 1990, but the gap between males and females has not significantly narrowed.

    MDG 2 figure 4Literacy rates, ages 15–24

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ◂ The youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15–24 that can, with comprehension, both read and write a short, simple statement about their everyday life. Literacy rates for males and females have increased in all regions, especially in regions starting from lower levels. For females in South Asia, the literacy rate increased from 48 percent in 1990 to 65 percent in 2005, which complements the progress for this group in net enrollment and completion rates in primary education.

    Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

    Significant progress has been achieved since 1990 in reducing developing countries’ gender disparity in primary and secondary education. All regions except Sub-Saharan Africa are broadly on track to meet MDG 3 by 2015, even if some countries in these regions remain off track. However, gender gaps in wages and labor participation rates remain substantial, and there is little statistical evidence to suggest that these gaps are narrowing.

    MDG 3 figure 1Ratio of girls to boys enrolled in primary and secondary education

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴Gender disparity is measured by the ratio of girls to boys enrolled in schools, whether at the primary, secondary, or tertiary levels. Country data used to compute regional rates cover 92 percent of developing countries’ total population. The original target aimed to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005, but this target was achieved only in Latin America and the Caribbean; East Asia and the Pacific came close to meeting that target.

    TARGET 3.A Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015

    MDG 3 figure 2Proportion of countries on track to achieve gender parity in primary and secondary education

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ All 27 countries (for which data exist) in Latin America and the Caribbean have achieved gender parity in primary and secondary education. For the countries with available data, 2 of 18 countries in East Asia and the Pacific and 3 of 21 countries in Europe and Central Asia are not on track to meet this goal. Thirteen countries in these three regions still lack data. In Sub-Saharan Africa, 18 of 37 countries (for which data exist) are not on track, and another 11 countries lack data. Eleven of 23 fragile states (for which data exist) are off track, while another 10 countries lack data for assessing progress.

    MDG 3 figure 3Gender differences in hourly wages

    Source: World Bank staff calculations based on national household surveys.

    ▴ Women generally receive lower wages than their male counterparts in the primary (agriculture and mining), secondary (manufacturing and construction), and tertiary (services) sectors of the economy. The wage ratio, used to analyze inequality in earnings, divides the female wage by the male wage. Chad’s primary sector had a wage ratio of 0.11 in 2002, indicating that men’s hourly earnings were almost ten times higher than women’s. In Albania men earned around double the hourly earnings of women in the primary sector. However, in some countries, such as the Arab Republic of Egypt, Malawi, and the Maldives, the wage ratio was higher than 1.0, indicating that women’s hourly earnings were higher than men’s. Overall, the data do not suggest strong patterns in terms of wage gaps by sectors. In some countries, such as Albania, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of Congo, or Turkey, wage gaps have been more pronounced in the primary sector than in the other two sectors. In others, such as the Maldives or Paraguay, wage gaps have been more pronounced in the tertiary sector.

    MDG 3 figure 4Share of men and women participating in the labor force, 1990–2006

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ◂ The labor force participation rate measures the proportion of the population between ages 15 and 64 that is economically active, that is, employed or actively seeking a job. Labor participation rates in all regions are lower for females than for males. Gender gaps in 2006 were the widest in the Middle East and North Africa and South Asia (47 percent and 46 percent, respectively). In all regions male labor participation rates declined between 1990 and 2006, to some extent because longer periods of education delayed entry into the labor market. In four of the six regions in the developing world, female labor participation rates declined in similar proportions, leaving gender gaps basically unchanged. In Latin America and the Caribbean and the Middle East and North Africa, the combination of decreasing male participation rates and increasing female participation rates has narrowed the gender gap.

    Reduce Child Mortality

    Most child mortalities can be prevented through proper nutrition, care, and simple medical treatment. In 1990, 13 million children in developing countries died before age five from diseases such as pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles, and AIDS. By 2006 that number had dropped to 10 million, and under-five mortality rates had declined in all regions. Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest under-five mortality rate in 2006, at 158 per 1,000. Ten of the 11 developing countries with rates above 200 are in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Sierra Leone (270) and Angola (260), and child mortality rates have increased, rather than decreased, in 12 countries in the region since 1990. The spread of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic has contributed to this phenomenon. South Asia is also off track for reaching the MDG child mortality target. Even in the regions that are broadly on track to achieve the target, many countries remain off track.

    MDG 4 figure 1Under-five mortality rate

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ A commonly used measure of child mortality is the under-five mortality rate, which is the probability that a newborn will die before reaching age five (expressed as a rate per 1,000). Regional estimates of child mortality are based on countries’ data covering 99.9 percent of developing countries’ total population.

    TARGET 4.A Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

    MDG 4 figure 2Proportion of countries on track to achieve the child mortality target

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ◂ One hundred and seven out of 145 developing countries with available data are either off track or seriously off track to reduce the under-five mortality rate by two thirds by 2015. In fact, a few on-track countries have a large influence on global and regional indicators. No country in Sub-Saharan Africa is on track or has reached the target. Only 2 of the 33 fragile states have achieved or are on track to reduce by two-thirds the under-five mortality rate they recorded in 1990.

    MDG 4 figure 3Increase in measles vaccination coverage, 1992–2006

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ Although many countries are not on track to reach the MDG child mortality target, inexpensive medical treatments have nonetheless helped reduce the number of child deaths. Oral rehydration tablets have mitigated dehydration from diarrhea, antibiotics have treated respiratory infections, mosquito nets have helped to prevent malaria, and measles vaccinations have protected children from the disease. Since 1992 the coverage of measles vaccinations has increased in all six regions, with the greatest change occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa, which now has greater coverage than South Asia. Measles vaccination coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa went from 50 percent in 1992 to 71 percent in 2006. Measles vaccination coverage is defined as the percentage of children ages 12–23 months who received measles vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey.

    Improve Maternal Health

    An estimated 536,000 maternal deaths occurred worldwide in 2005, over 99 percent of them in developing countries. Difficulties during pregnancy and childbirth are the primary cause of death for women of childbearing age in these countries. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest maternal mortality rate—more than twenty times higher than the mortality rate for Europe and Central Asia. Although all regions have increased the percentage of births attended by skilled health staff, the statistics still remain low for South Asia (41 percent) and Sub-Saharan Africa (46 percent). Adult fertility rates have declined over the past 10 years in all regions, and 87 percent of countries with available data have increased contraceptive prevalence rates.

    MDG 5 figure 1Maternal mortality rates

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ The maternal mortality rate is the number of women who die either during pregnancy or delivery due to pregnancy-related complications, per 100,000 live births. Such statistics are very difficult to collect through surveys, and data reported here rely on modeling techniques developed by the World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, and United Nations Population Fund.

    TARGET 5.A Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

    TARGET 5.B Achieve by 2015 universal access to reproductive health

    MDG 5 figure 2Births attended by skilled personnel

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ◂ The high maternal mortality rate in developing countries is correlated with poor health care during pregnancy and childbirth. Since 1990 the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel has increased across all regions, most noticeably in East Asia and the Pacific, where it almost doubled from its 1992 level of 47 percent, to reach 87 percent in 2006. Conversely, the proportion of attended births by skilled personnel increased only one percentage point in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the maternal mortality rate remains the highest. Regional estimates reported here are based on country data covering 90 percent of developing countries’ total population.

    MDG 5 figure 3Contraceptive prevalence: Annual change for 89 countries, various dates 1988–2006

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ◂ The contraceptive prevalence rate is the percentage of married women ages 15–49 who use, or whose sexual partners use, any form of contraception. In most of the 89 countries that have two data points between 1988 and 2006, contraceptive use increased.

    MDG 5 figure 4Fertility rate for women ages 15–19, 1997–2008

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ Adolescent fertility rates, or the number of births per 1,000 women ages 15–19, have decreased in all regions since 1997, but the 2007 rate in Sub-Saharan Africa (119) is more than seven times greater than the rate in East Asia and the Pacific (16).

    Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Other Diseases

    It is estimated that 99 percent of individuals who die from AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria reside in the developing world. In 2007, 33 million individuals were living with HIV, 2.5 million were newly infected, and 2.1 million died from AIDS. As the estimated number of people living with HIV increases each year, the AIDS epidemic has become one of the greatest challenges to public health and requires improved access to HIV prevention and treatment services. Prevalence rates have stabilized since 2001 and have now started to decline, although moderately. Progress is most pronounced in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the proportion of population living with HIV has declined by a full percentage point since 2000. However, other regions that had started from much lower levels conversely record increases in prevalence rates, mostly within high-risk populations.

    MDG 6 figure 1Tuberculosis incidence and prevalence rates, 1990–2005

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates measure the percentage of the population that is newly infected with TB (pulmonary, smear positive, and extrapulmonary), while prevalence rates measure the percentage of individuals in a population who have TB. Both are measured per 100,000 people. Both the incidence and prevalence rates for TB have either remained level or declined from 1990 to 2005 in every region except Sub-Saharan Africa and Europe and Central Asia, where it has been leveling off since the early 2000s. Following earlier declines in prevalence rates for TB, the incidence rate for the different regions has now stabilized or has been decreasing, but population growth has been offsetting the slow fall in incidence rates.

    TARGET 6.A Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

    TARGET 6.B Achieve by 2010 universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it

    TARGET 6.C Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

    MDG 6 figure 2Estimated HIV prevalence trends for ages 15–49

    Source: UNAIDS/WHO.

    ▴ The HIV prevalence rate measures the percentage of individuals in a population who are infected with the HIV virus. The global prevalence rate has remained level since 2001. In many Sub-Saharan African countries, the national prevalence rate has either leveled off or decreased.

    MDG 6 figure 3HIV prevalence rates, 2003–05

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ Sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the highest HIV prevalence rates, had a decrease from 6.36 in 2003 to 5.76 in 2005. In 2005 the prevalence rates in other regions were much lower, ranging from 0.15 (in the Middle East and North Africa) to 0.71 (in South Asia). High-income countries recorded a prevalence rate of 0.36 in both 2003 and 2005. From 2003 to 2005, 69 countries had positive annual changes in HIV prevalence rates, while 51 had annual decreases during that time.

    MDG 6 figure 4Rates of condom use and HIV knowledge in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ◂ Condom use and knowledge about HIV can help to decrease the number of individuals who become infected by HIV. The rate of condom use is defined as the percentage of the population between the ages of 15 to 24 who use a condom (or in the case of females, whose partner uses a condom), and the rate of HIV knowledge is defined as the percentage of individuals (in this case female) who have comprehensive, correct knowledge about HIV (ability to describe two ways to prevent infection and to reject three misconceptions concerning HIV). Condom use for females’ partners increased in all Sub-Saharan African countries with available data except Zimbabwe, where usage is estimated to have decreased from 11 to 10 percent between 1999 and 2004. Usage sharply increased in South Africa, from 25 percent in 1999 to 60 percent in 2004. Female HIV knowledge also increased in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, most notably in Rwanda, where knowledge went from 26 to 48 percent between 1990 and 2004. But gains can also be reversed, as observed in Malawi, where HIV knowledge receded.

    Ensure Environmental Sustainability

    Access to clean potable water and basic sanitation is one of the targets to ensuring environmental sustainability and a key indicator for human development. Over 1 billion individuals lack access to safe drinking water, and 2.6 billion individuals lack access to basic sanitation. Improvements in these two areas could help to reduce dramatically the burden of disease, particularly diarrhea, which contributes to approximately 1.8 million deaths annually. In addition, deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, threaten biodiversity and drive climate change through global warming. In most regions adjusted net savings is negative or on the decline, indicating that countries are not saving enough to offset resource depletion and environmental degradation, thus clouding prospects of sustainable development.

    MDG 7 figure 1Population without access to an improved water source or sanitation facilities

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    MDG 7 figure 2Regions’ contributions to global deforestation, 1990–2005

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ◂ Forests act as carbon sinks and absorb carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Deforestation thus hinders sustainable development because it results in higher levels of greenhouse gas emissions as well as loss of biodiversity. Between 1990 and 2005 the global surface of forests was reduced by 1.3 million square kilometers, or 3 percent of its total. Forty percent of the world’s forests are located in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, which were the two most important regional contributors to global deforestation. Latin America and the Caribbean lost 7 percent of its forests in 15 years; Sub-Saharan Africa, 9 percent.

    ◂ Access to sanitation refers to the percentage of population with at least adequate access to excreta facilities (private or shared, but not public) that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Regional estimates are computed using country data covering 99 percent of developing countries’ total population. Access to improved sources of water refers to the percentage of population with reasonable access to a permanent source of safe water in their dwelling or within a reasonable distance from it. Regional estimates are computed using country data covering 98 percent of developing countries’total population. Latin America and the Caribbean and East Asia and the Pacific were broadly on track by 2004 to halve the proportion of people without access to an improved source of water and sanitation facilities by 2015. South Asia was on track to meet the water access goal, but off track for reaching the sanitation access goal. The Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Europe and Central Asia were off track on both goals; the transition economies record the lowest proportion of people lacking access to both water and sanitation.

    TARGET 7.A Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources

    TARGET 7.B Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving by 2010 a significant reduction in the rate of loss

    TARGET 7.C Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

    TARGET 7.D Have achieved a significant improvement by 2020 in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

    MDG 7 figure 3CO2 emissions per capita, 1995–2004

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are derived from fossil energy use and cement manufacture, which tends to rise with incomes. Thus per capita CO2 emissions are greatest in high-income countries, which record levels more than five times those of developing countries. The Middle East and North Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa have recorded increases.

    MDG 7 figure 4Adjusted net savings, 1995–2005

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ Adjusted net savings measures the saving rate in an economy after adjustments are made for educational expenditure, capital depreciation, natural resource depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage. A negative saving rate indicates that an economy is on an unsustainable future path of economic growth. Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa have all exhibited a downward trend in adjusted net saving since 1995 and had negative adjusted net saving rates in 2005. Latin America and the Caribbean had a positive 2005 adjusted net saving rate but also had declining adjusted net saving levels. In recent years, only the Asian regions seem to have both an upward trend in adjusted net savings and a positive saving rate.

    MDG 7 figure 5Proportion of countries on track to achieve the targets for access to improved water and sanitation

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    ▴ Thirty-five percent of the developing countries (with available data) have achieved or are on track to achieve the improved water target, while 24 percent have achieved or are on track to achieve the improved sanitation target. Fifty-seven percent of countries (with available data) in the Middle East and North Africa and in Europe and Central Asia are seriously off track in improving access to safe drinking water. Conditions are worse for the improved sanitation target, where 12 of 19 European and Central Asian countries and 36 of 45 Sub-Saharan African countries (with available data) are seriously off track.

    Develop a Global Partnership for Development

    Official development assistance (ODA) from Development Assistance Committee (DAC) countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has increased steadily in the last decade, with a large jump in 2005, mostly attributable to debt-relief initiatives. Aid today is more flexible and more aligned to national priorities. It is also more selective, that is, more responsive to needs, as well as to the quality of policies and institutions. Aid from DAC countries, as measured by per capita income levels, still falls short of the United Nations target of 0.7 percent of gross national income (GNI). Moreover, multilateral trade discussions have not yet delivered tangible results, even if market access for developing countries’ exports has slightly improved. With decreasing costs, information technologies are spreading very rapidly across the world, but the digital divide still remains a concerning reality.

    MDG 8 figure 1Evolution of global aid in DAC countries, 1990–2006

    Source: OECD DAC database.

    ▴ One of the indicators for MDG 8 is the ratio of total net ODA to DAC donors’ GNI. The ODA-to-GNI ratio for DAC donors stood at 0.31 percent in 2006, below the level of the early 1990s. The level of programmable aid, which can be more rapidly and effectively aligned to national priorities, has increased since 1990, but the percentage of ODA considered programmable aid has fallen. Programmable aid is total ODA excluding bilateral humanitarian aid, debt relief, administration costs, in-donor country refugee costs, and imputed student costs. Non-DAC ODA, which is estimated to be growing rapidly, has not yet been monitored on a systematic basis.

    MDG 8 figure 2Evolution of global DAC aid by income category

    Source: OECD DAC database.

    ◂ The amount of ODA disbursed by DAC donors to low-income countries grew by 124 percent from 2000 to 2006. Owing to debt-relief initiatives, ODA to lower-middle-income countries rose by 175 percent from 2002 to 2005 but sharply decreased, by 47 percent, in 2006.

    TARGET 8.A Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and financial system

    TARGET 8.B Address the special needs of the least developed countries

    TARGET 8.C Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing states

    TARGET 8.D Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term

    TARGET 8.E In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries

    TARGET 8.F In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications

    MDG 8 figure 3Trade restrictiveness and market access by income groups

    Source: World Bank Staff calculations.

    ◂ The Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index (OTRI) measures the overall restrictiveness (including non-tariff measures) faced by imports while the Market Access Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index (MA-OTRI) measures the overall restrictiveness (including non-tariff measures) faced by exports. Despite limited progress in the Doha round of multilateral trade negotiations, low- and middle-income countries benefited from a slight improvement between 2000 and 2006 in market access for their products. However, low-income countries, given their specialization in agriculture, still face the lowest levels of access to exports markets. Symmetrically, low-income countries still impose larger restrictions on imports than any other group of countries, despite significant progress between 2000 and 2006. Over the same period, trade liberalization in middle-income countries was more pronounced.

    MDG 8 figure 4Debt sustainability 2006–08

    Source: IMF.

    ▴ With the adoption of the MDGs and recent multilateral debt-relief initiatives, the international community is committed to monitoring more closely external (and domestic) debt-sustainability indicators, primarily in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. A country is said to experience debt-stress risk if its debt-burden indicator exceeds its indicative threshold over a 20-year projection period. Low risk indicates that all the debt-burden indicators are far below the baseline scenario threshold; moderate risk indicates that debt-burden indicators currently below the threshold could increase from external shocks or unexpected macroeconomic policy changes; high risk indicates that at least one debt-burden indicator has surpassed the threshold, and debt distress indicates that a country is already having repayment difficulties. For the 56 countries that have reliable data, eight low-income countries were in debt distress as of early 2008.

    MDG 8 figure 5Growth in Internet affordability and use

    Source: World Development Indicators.

    Internet costs are dropping rapidly but are still very expensive for users in developing countries, low-income countries in particular, where a one-year subscription cost was equivalent to 62 percent of GNI per capita in 2005. The proportion of users doubled in low-income countries between 2003 and 2005 but remains low, at 4 percent of the population. In contrast, the proportion of users in high-income countries increased from 46 to 56 percent over the same period.

    ECO-A UDIT

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    • 2,078 pounds of solid waste

    • 12,560 gallons of water

    • 3,831 pounds of greenhouse gases

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