- International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office
- Published Date:
- August 2005
© 2005 International Monetary Fund
Production: IMF Multimedia Services Division
Figures: Wendy Arnold
Typesetting: Alicia Etchebarne-Bourdin
The IMF’s approach to capital account liberalization: evaluation report/[prepared by a team headed by Shinji Takagi and including Jeffrey Allen Chelsky … [et al]—[Washington, D.C.]: International Monetary Fund, 2005.
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Capital movements. 2. International Monetary Fund—Evaluation. I. Takagi, Shinji, 1953– II. Chelsky, Jeffrey Allen. III. International Monetary Fund, Independent Evaluation Office.
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The following symbols have been used throughout this report:
– between years or months (e.g. 2003–04 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (e.g. 2003/04) to indicate a fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
Some of the documents cited and referenced in this report were not available to the public at the time of publication of this report. Under the current policy on public access to the IMF’s archives, some of these documents will become available five years after their issuance. They may be referenced as EBS/YY/NN and SM/YY/NN, where EBS and SM indicate the series and YY indicates the year of issue. Certain other documents are to become available ten or twenty years after their issuance depending on the series.
This report reviews the IMF’s approach to capital account liberalization and related issues, drawing on evidence from a sample of emerging market economies over the period 1990–2004. The role of the IMF in capital account liberalization has been a topic of major controversy. An independent evaluation of the IMF’s advice on capital account issues is therefore both timely and appropriate.
The evaluation seeks to contribute to transparency by documenting what in practice has been the IMF’s approach to capital account liberalization and related issues and to identify areas where the IMF’s instruments and operating methods might be improved, in order to deal with capital account issues more effectively. The report deals not only with capital account liberalization per se but also with capital flow management issues, including particularly the temporary use of capital controls.
Capital account liberalization is an area where there is little professional consensus, making it difficult to evaluate the IMF’s policy advice against some universal set of criteria. Moreover, the IMF Articles of Agreement give the IMF only limited jurisdiction over the capital account, with the result that the IMF had no formal policy on most capital account issues during the period under review. For these reasons, the evaluation assesses the IMF’s actual approach to these issues, identifying what policy advice the IMF gave in the context of a specific country at a specific point in time.
The report begins by reviewing the IMF’s general operational approach and analysis as they evolved from the early 1990s into the early 2000s. It then assesses the IMF’s country work in terms of (1) its role in capital account liberalization during 1990–2002, (2) its policy advice to member countries on managing capital flows during the same period, and (3) its ongoing work on capital account issues in a group of emerging market economies during 2003–04. The report concludes by offering two broad recommendations. First, as noted in the original terms of reference, the evaluation does not seek to make a judgment on whether the Articles of Agreement should be amended to give the IMF an explicit mandate and jurisdiction on capital account issues, since this is an issue that goes well beyond the scope of the evaluation evidence. However, the report does conclude that greater clarity on the IMF’s approach to capital account issues is needed and makes a number of suggestions as to how this might be achieved. Second, the report supports greater attention by the IMF’s analysis and surveillance to the supply-side factors of international capital flows, a process that is already under way.
The report was discussed by the IMF Executive Board on May 11, 2005. In keeping with established practice, the report is being published as submitted to the Board, except for minor factual corrections. This volume also includes the response of IMF management and staff to the evaluation, the IEO response, and the Summing Up of the Board discussion.
Independent Evaluation Office
The report was prepared by a team headed by Shinji Takagi and including Jeffrey Allen Chelsky, Edna Armendariz, Misa Takebe, and Halim Kucur. It also benefited from substantive contributions from Rawi Abdelal, Masahiro Kawai, David Peretz, Jai Won Ryou, and participants in a workshop held at the Institute for International Economics—William Cline, Morris Goldstein, Michael Mussa, Edwin Truman, and John Williamson. Administrative support by Annette Canizares, Arun Bhatnagar, and Maria S. Gutierrez, and editorial work by Ian McDonald and Esha Ray are gratefully acknowledged. The report was approved by David Goldsbrough, Acting Director of the IEO.
Abbreviations and AcronymsADR
American Depository ReceiptAREAER
Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions (IMF)BIBF
Bangkok International Banking FacilityCAC
Collective action clauseEFF
Extended Fund Facility (IMF)EMU
Economic and Monetary UnionERM
Exchange Rate Mechanism (European Monetary System)EU
Foreign direct investmentFSAP
Financial Sector Assessment Program (IMF and World Bank)GATS
General Agreement on Trade in ServicesGATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and TradeGDP
Gross domestic productGFSR
Global Financial Stability Report (IMF)ICM
International Capital Markets Department (IMF)ICMR
International Capital Markets Report (IMF)IEO
Independent Evaluation Office (IMF)IMF
International Monetary FundIOSCO
International Organization of Securities CommissionsLEG
Legal Department (IMF)LIBOR
London interbank offered rateLOI
Letter of Intent (IMF)MAE
Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department (IMF)1MFD
Monetary and Financial Systems Department (IMF)OECD
Organization for Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentPDR
Policy Development and Review Department (IMF)RES
Research Department (IMF)SDR
Special drawing right (IMF)SDRM
Sovereign Debt Restructuring MechanismSBA
Stand-By Arrangement (IMF)TA
United Nations Conference on Trade and DevelopmentURR
Unremunerated reserve requirementWEO
World Economic Outlook (IMF)WTO
World Trade Organization
Effective May 1, 2003, name was changed to Monetary and Financial Systems Department.