Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Published Date:
January 1994
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    APPENDIX European Community: Selected Trade Measures Introduced and Eliminated on an EU-Wide Basis During 19931

    Antidumping Duties

    1. Introduction

    January 8. Definitive antidumping duty was imposed on imports of outer rings of tapered roller bearings originating in Japan (Council Regulation No. 55/93).

    January 8. Definitive antidumping duty was imposed on imports of synthetic fibers of polyesters originating in India and the Republic of Korea (Council Regulation No. 54/93).

    March 5. Provisional antidumping duty was imposed on imports of bicycles originating in the People’s Republic of China (Commission Regulation No. 550/93).

    March 30. Provisional antidumping duty was imposed on imports of ferro-chrome with a carbon content by weight of maximum 9.5 percent (low carbon ferro-chrome) originating in Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine (Commission Regulation No. 797/93).

    April 15. Provisional antidumping duty was imposed on imports of certain magnetic disks (3.5” microdisks) originating in Japan, Taiwan Province of China, and the People’s Republic of China (Commission Regulation No. 920/93).

    April 26. Definitive antidumping duty was imposed on imports of certain electronic weighing scales originating in Japan (Council Regulation No. 993/93).

    May 14. Definitive antidumping duty was imposed on imports of certain seamless pipes and tubes, of iron or non-alloy steel, originating in Hungary, Poland, and Croatia (Council Regulation No. 1189/93).

    June 14. Definitive antidumping duty was imposed on imports of magnesium oxide originating in the People’s Republic of China (Council Regulation No. 1473/93).

    July 30. Provisional antidumping duty was imposed on imports of ethanolamine originating in the United States (Commission Regulation No. 2172/93).

    August 23. Definitive antidumping duty was imposed on imports of woven polyolefin sacks originating in the People’s Republic of China (Council Regulation No. 2346/93).

    September 6. Provisional antidumping duty was imposed on imports of certain photo albums originating in the People’s Republic of China (Commission Regulation No. 2477/93).

    September 13. Definitive antidumping duty was imposed on imports of artificial corundum originating in the People’s Republic of China, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine (Council Regulation No. 2552/93).

    September 20. Provisional antidumping duty was imposed on imports of ferro-silicon originating in South Africa and the People’s Republic of China (Commission Regulation No. 2581/93).

    September 28. Provisional antidumping duty was imposed on imports of isobutanol originating in the Russian Federation (Commission Regulation No. 2720/93).

    September 28. Definitive antidumping duty was imposed on imports of ferro-chrome with a carbon content by weight of maximum 0.5 percent (low carbon ferro-chrome), originating in Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine (Council Regulation No. 2717/93).

    October 18. Definitive antidumping duty was imposed on imports of certain magnetic disks (3.5” microdisks) originating in Japan, Taiwan Province of China, and the People’s Republic of China (Council Regulation No. 2861/93).

    October 20. Definitive antidumping duty was imposed on imports of certain electronic weighing scales originating in Singapore and the Republic of Korea (Council Regulation No. 2887/93).

    October 26. Provisional antidumping duty was imposed on imports of certain gas-fueled, nonrefillable pocket flint lighters originating in Thailand (Commission Regulation No. 2957/93).

    October 29. Provisional antidumping duty was imposed on imports of television camera systems originating in Japan (Commission Regulation No. 3029/93).

    December 2. Amended antidumping measures were imposed on imports of ferro-silicon originating in Brazil, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Norway, the Russian Federation, Sweden, Ukraine, and Venezuela (Council Regulation No. 3359/93).

    December 6. Definitive antidumping duty was imposed on imports of dead-burned (sintered) magnesia originating in the People’s Republic of China (Council Regulation No. 3386/93).

    2. Extension

    January 8. Provisional antidumping duty on imports of certain types of electronic microcircuits known as DRAMs (dynamic random access memories) originating in the Republic of Korea was extended (Council Regulation No. 53/93).

    March 8. Provisional antidumping duty on imports of certain seamless pipes and tubes of iron or nonalloy steel originating in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and the Slovak Republic was extended (Council Regulation No. 545/93).

    July 28. Provisional antidumping duty on imports of ferro-chrome with a carbon content by weight of maximum 0.5 percent (low carbon ferro-chrome) originating in Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine was extended (Council Regulation No. 2078/93).

    August 4. Provisional antidumping duty on imports of certain magnetic disks (3.5” microdisks) originating in Japan, Taiwan Province of China, and the People’s Republic of China was extended (Council Regulation No. 2206/93).

    December 6. Provisional antidumping duty on imports of ferro-silicon originating in South Africa and the People’s Republic of China was extended (Council Regulation No. 3371/93).

    December 20. Provisional antidumping duty on imports of fluorspar originating in the People’s Republic of China was extended (Council Regulation No. 3529/93).

    3. Elimination

    May 18. Antidumping duty on imports of paint, distemper, varnish, and similar brushes originating in the People’s Republic of China was eliminated (Commission Decision No. 93/325/EEC).

    June 16. Definitive antidumping duties on imports of electronic typewriters originating in Japan were eliminated (Commission Decision No. 93/376/EEC).

    June 22. Antidumping duties on certain imports of gas-fueled, nonrefillable pocket flint lighters originating in the People’s Republic of China were eliminated (Commission Decision No. 93/377/EEC).

    July 19. Antidumping duties on imports of compact discs originating in Taiwan Province of China, Singapore, and Malaysia were eliminated (Commission Decision No. 93/413/EEC).

    August 24. Antidumping duties on imports of certain compact disc players originating in Japan and the Republic of Korea were eliminated (Council Regulation No. 2347/93).

    September 6. Antidumping duties on imports of bicycles originating in Taiwan Province of China were eliminated (Commission Decision No. 93/485/EEC).

    September 13. Definitive antidumping duty on imports of ball bearings with a maximum external diameter exceeding 30 mm. originating in Japan was eliminated (Council Regulation No. 2554/93).

    September 28. Antidumping duties on imports of unwrought manganese containing more than 96 percent by weight of manganese originating in the People’s Republic of China were eliminated (Commission Decision No. 93/519/EEC).

    Countervailing Charges

    1. Introduction

    January 19. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Cyprus (Commission Regulation No. 88/93).

    January 26. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Cyprus (Commission Regulation No. 133/93).

    February 2. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Cyprus (Commission Regulation No. 218/93).

    February 5. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Turkey (Commission Regulation No. 270/93).

    February 15. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in Austria (Commission Regulation No. 337/93).

    February 22. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Cyprus (Commission Regulation No. 393/93).

    February 24. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in Austria (Commission Regulation No. 412/93).

    March 1. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Turkey and preferential customs duty on imports of fresh lemons originating in Turkey suspended (Commission Regulation No. 474/93).

    March 11. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Cyprus (Commission Regulation No. 574/93).

    April 5. Countervailing charge was introduced on tomatoes originating in Morocco (Commission Regulation No. 822/93).

    April 6. Countervailing charge was introduced on tomatoes originating in Turkey (Commission Regulation No. 830/93).

    April 7. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in Chile (Commission Regulation No. 846/93).

    April 15. Countervailing charge was introduced on tomatoes originating in Morocco (Commission Regulation No. 884/93).

    May 11. Countervailing charge was introduced on cucumbers originating in Romania (Commission Regulation No. 1149/93).

    May 17. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in Chile (amending Regulation No. 846/93 (Commission Regulation No. 1206/93)).

    May 24. Countervailing charge was introduced on cucumbers originating in Romania (Commission Regulation No. 1249/93).

    June 4. Countervailing charge was introduced on apricots originating in Tunisia (Commission Regulation No. 1389/93).

    June 11. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Argentina (Commission Regulation No. 1453/93).

    June 15. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in Chile (amending Regulation No. 846/93 (Commission Regulation No. 1467/93)).

    June 15. Countervailing charge was introduced on apricots originating in Tunisia (Commission Regulation No. 1468/93).

    June 17. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in the United States (Commission Regulation No. 1491/93).

    June 21. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in South Africa (Commission Regulation No. 1522/93).

    June 23. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in Argentina (Commission Regulation No. 1586/93).

    June 24. Countervailing charge was introduced on cherries originating in Hungary (Commission Regulation No. 1602/93).

    June 29. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in South Africa (Commission Regulation No. 1677/93).

    June 30. Definitive countervailing charge was imposed on imports of ball bearings with a maximum external diameter not exceeding 30 mm. originating in Thailand (Council Regulation No. 1781/93).

    July 7. Countervailing charge was introduced on tomatoes originating in Finland (Commission Regulation No. 1819/93).

    July 8. Countervailing charge was introduced on pears originating in South Africa (Commission Regulation No. 1832/93).

    July 8. Countervailing charge was introduced on pears originating in Australia (Commission Regulation No. 1831/93).

    July 12. Countervailing charge was introduced on pears originating in Chile (Commission Regulation No. 1868/93).

    July 16. Countervailing charge was introduced on tomatoes originating in Finland (Commission Regulation No. 1929/93).

    July 27. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Uruguay (Commission Regulation No. 2051/93).

    August 4. Countervailing charge was introduced on certain varieties of plums originating in Romania (Commission Regulation No. 2201/93).

    August 5. Countervailing charge was introduced on certain varieties of plum originating in Hungary (Commission Regulation No. 2221/93).

    August 12. Countervailing charge was introduced on certain varieties of plum originating in Hungary (Commission Regulation No. 2269/93).

    August 23. Countervailing charge was introduced on certain varieties of prune originating in Hungary (Commission Regulation No. 2343/93).

    August 23. Countervailing charge was introduced on table grapes originating in Cyprus (Commission Regulation No. 2342/93).

    August 23. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in Argentina (Commission Regulation No. 2341/93).

    August 23. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Uruguay (Commission Regulation No. 2339/93).

    August 27. Countervailing charge was introduced on prunes originating in Hungary (repealing Regulation No. 2343/93 (Commission Regulation No. 2388/93)).

    September 8. Countervailing charge was introduced on certain varieties of plum originating in Hungary (Commission Regulation No. 2485/93).

    September 16. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in Hungary (Commission Regulation No. 2550/93).

    September 21. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in South Africa (Commission Regulation No. 2584/93).

    September 22. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in New Zealand (Commission Regulation No. 2599/93).

    September 27. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in South Africa (repealing Commission Regulation No. 2584/93 (Commission Regulation No. 2641/93)).

    October 1. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in South Africa (amending Commission Regulation No. 2641/93 (Commission Regulation No. 2721/93)).

    October 5. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in New Zealand, amending Regulation No. 2599/93 (Commission Regulation No. 2744/93).

    October 25. Countervailing charge was introduced on apples originating in Hungary (Commission Regulation No. 2936/93).

    November 4. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Turkey (Commission Regulation No. 3058/93).

    November 10. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Turkey (repealing Commission Regulation No. 3058/93).

    November 16. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh lemons originating in Turkey (amending Regulation No. 3113/93 (Commission Regulation No. 3150/93)).

    November 16. Countervailing charge was introduced on tomatoes originating in Morocco (Commission Regulation No. 3151/93).

    November 23. Countervailing charge was introduced on tomatoes originating in Morocco (amending Commission Regulation No. 3151/93 (Commission Regulation No. 3209/93)).

    November 29. Countervailing charge was introduced on tomatoes originating in Morocco (amending Commission Regulation No. 3151/93 (Commission Regulation No. 3270/93)).

    December 3. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh Clementines originating in Morocco (Commission Regulation No. 3340/93).

    December 10. Countervailing charge was introduced on fresh Clementines originating in Morocco (amending Regulation No. 3340/93 (Commission Regulation No. 3398/93)).

    2. Elimination

    January 13. Countervailing charge on fresh lemons originating in Turkey was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 52/93).

    February 9. Countervailing charge on fresh Clementines originating in Morocco was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 291/93).

    February 17. Countervailing charge on fresh lemons originating in Turkey was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 355/93).

    February 17. Countervailing charge on fresh lemons originating in Cyprus was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 356/93).

    March 8. Countervailing charge on fresh lemons originating in Cyprus was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 530/93).

    April 16. Countervailing charge on tomatoes originating in Turkey was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 903/93).

    April 22. Countervailing charge on fresh lemons originating in Cyprus was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 949/93).

    June 29. Countervailing charge on apples originating in the United States was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 1676/93).

    July 8. Countervailing charge on lemons originating in South Africa was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 1833/93).

    July 13. Countervailing charge on cherries originating in Hungary was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 1890/93).

    August 6. Countervailing charge on fresh lemons originating in Uruguay was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 2231/93).

    August 13. Countervailing charge on prunes originating in Romania was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 2280/93).

    August 23. Countervailing charge on pears originating in Australia was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 2340/93).

    August 25. Countervailing charge on apples originating in Chile was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 2358/93).

    September 17. Countervailing charge on apples originating in New Zealand was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 2568/93).

    September 29. Countervailing charge on apples originating in Hungary was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 2661/93).

    October 18. Countervailing charge on apples originating in New Zealand was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 2841/93).

    October 22. Countervailing charge on apples originating in South Africa was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 2922/93).

    November 3. Countervailing charge on apples originating in Hungary was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 3039/93).

    November 19. Countervailing charge on fresh lemons originating in Turkey was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 3191/93).

    December 2. Countervailing charge on tomatoes originating in Morocco was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 3321/93).

    December 15. Countervailing charge on fresh Clementines originating in Morocco was eliminated (Commission Regulation No. 3440/93).

    Community Tariff Quotas

    1. Establishment

    February 1. Community tariff quotas were established for frozen peas originating in Sweden (Council Regulation No. 221/93).

    February 1. Community tariff quotas were established for fresh or dried hazelnuts, shelled or not, originating in Turkey (Council Regulation No. 222/93).

    February 1. Community tariff quotas were established for certain agricultural products originating in Israel (Council Regulation No. 223/93).

    February 1. Community tariff quotas were established for certain agricultural products originating in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt (Council Regulation No. 239/93).

    February 1. Community tariff quotas were established for certain agricultural products originating in Cyprus (Council Regulation No. 240/93).

    February 8. Community tariff quotas were established for certain agricultural and fishery products originating in certain EFTA countries (Council Regulation No. 303/93).

    April 5. Community tariff quotas were established for beer made from malt originating in Malta (Council Regulation No. 831/93).

    April 19. Community tariff quotas were established for cod and fish of the species Boreogadus saida originating in Norway (Council Regulation No. 928/93).

    April 23. Community tariff quotas were established for certain mixtures of malt sprouts and barley screenings (Council Regulation No. 992/93).

    April 26. Community tariff quotas and ceilings were established for certain agricultural and industrial products originating in Romania (Council Regulation No. 1014/93).

    June 14. Temporary suspension of the autonomous community tariff quotas was applied on a number of industrial products (in the microelectronics and related sectors) (Council Regulation No. 1572/93).

    June 24. Temporary suspension of the autonomous community tariff quotas was applied on certain industrial products intended to equip the free zones of the Azores and Madeira (Council Regulation No. 1657/93).

    June 25. Community tariff quotas were established for certain agricultural products originating in Cyprus, Morocco, Israel, Tunisia, and Egypt (Council Regulation No. 1678/93).

    June 25. Community tariff quotas were established for apricot pulp originating in Turkey (Council Regulation No. 1679/93).

    June 30. Community tariff quotas were established for rum, tafia, and arrack originating in the African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) States (Council Regulation No. 1806/93).

    July 12. Community tariff quotas were established for bulls, cows, and heifers, other than those intended for slaughter, of certain Alpine breeds (Council Regulation No. 1919/93).

    July 12. Community tariff quotas were established for heifers and cows, other than those intended for slaughter, of certain mountain breeds (Council Regulation No. 1918/93).

    July 22. Community tariff quotas were established for herring, fresh or chilled, originating in Sweden (Council Regulation No. 2105/93).

    September 21. Community tariff quotas were established for certain melons originating in Israel (Council Regulation No. 2605/93).

    September 21. Community tariff quotas were established for freshly cut flowers and flower buds, originating in Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, or Morocco (Council Regulation No. 2604/93).

    December 10. Community tariff quotas were established for certain agricultural and industrial products (Council Regulation No. 3466/93).

    December 10. Community tariff quotas were established for certain hand-woven fabrics, pile, and chenille (Council Regulation No. 3510/93).

    December 10. Community tariff quotas were established for certain hand-made products (Council Regulation No. 3509/93).

    December 16. Community tariff quotas were established for certain fruits and fruit juices (Council Regulation No. 3636/93).

    December 16. Community tariff quotas bound in GATT were established for certain agricultural and industrial products (Council Regulation No. 3637/93).

    December 20. Community tariff quotas were established for certain mixtures of malt sprouts and barley screenings (Council Regulation No. 3569/93).

    December 22. Community tariff quotas were established for certain industrial products (Council Regulation No. 3672/93).

    December 22. Community tariff quotas were established for certain wines originating in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania (Council Regulation No. 3671/93).

    Common Customs Tariffs

    1. Application

    January 7. Common customs tariff was applied to fresh lemons originating in Cyprus (Commission Regulation No. 15/93).

    2. Re-establishment

    February 16. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 6403 originating in Indonesia and Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 342/93).

    March 25. Common customs tariff on products of Category 9 (Order No. 40.0090) originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 711/93).

    April 6. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 8528 originating in Malaysia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 837/93).

    April 22. Common customs tariff on products of Category 4 (Order No. 40.0040) originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 964/93).

    April 22. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 8521 originating in Singapore, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 963/93).

    April 27. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 3102.10.10 originating in Latvia and Lithuania, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1002/93).

    May 3. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 6913 originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1088/93).

    May 6. Common customs tariff on products of Category 37 (Order No. 40.0370) originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1119/93).

    May 6. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 37 and 39 (Order Nos. 40.0370 and 40.0390) originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1117/93).

    May 6. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 24 and 39 (Order Nos. 40.0240 and 30.0390) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1118/93).

    May 7. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 3923.21.00 originating in China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1136/93).

    May 7. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 3904 originating in Brazil, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1137/93).

    May 7. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 6913 originating in the Republic of Korea, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1138/93).

    May 7. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 3817 originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1139/93).

    May 10. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 8712.00 originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1145/93).

    May 13. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Codes 3102.30, 3102.40, and 3102.80.00 originating in Lithuania, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1178/93).

    May 17. Common customs tariff on products of Category 22 (Order No. 40.0220) originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1216/93).

    May 19. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 8516.50.00 originating in the People’s Republic of China and Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1246/93).

    June 4. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 6403 originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1393/93).

    June 4. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 9105 originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1394/93).

    June 8. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 9103 originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1409/93).

    June 8. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Codes ex 9101 and ex 9102 originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1410/93).

    June 8. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 7013 originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1411/93).

    June 8. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Codes 6401 and 6402 originating in Malaysia and the Philippines, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1412/93).

    June 9. Common customs tariff on products of Category 161 (Order No. 42.1610) originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1425/93).

    June 9. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 21 and 36 (Order Nos. 40.0210 and 40.0360) originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1426/93).

    June 9. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 8, 9, and 40 (Order Nos. 40.0080, 40.0090, and 40.0400) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1427/93).

    June 11. Common customs tariff on products of CN Code 3102.40 originating in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, to which the tariff ceilings of Council Regulation No. 3918/92 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1447/93).

    June 18. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 5,26, and 59 (Order Nos. 40.0050,40.0260, and 40.0590) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1508/93).

    June 18. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 59, 109, and 159 (Order Nos. 40.0590, 40.1090, and 42.1590) originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1509/93).

    June 18. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 6 and 18 (Order Nos. 40.0060 and 40.0180) originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1510/93).

    June 18. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 24 and 39 (Order Nos. 40.0240 and 40.0390) originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1511/93).

    June 18. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 63 and 100 (Order Nos. 40.0630 and 40.1000) originating in the Republic of Korea, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1512/93).

    June 18. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 66, 69, 75, and 118 (Order Nos. 40.0660, 40.0690,40.0750, and 42.1180) originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1526/93).

    June 18. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 22, 23, and 75 (Order Nos. 40.0220, 40.0230, and 40.0750) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1527/93).

    June 18. Common customs tariff on products of Category 117 (Order No. 42.1170) originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1528/93).

    June 18. Common customs tariff on products of Category 23 (Order No. 40.0230) originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1529/93).

    June 18. Common customs tariff on products of Category 20 (Order No. 40.0200) originating in Bulgaria, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1530/93).

    June 18. Common customs tariff on products of Category 16 (Order No. 40.0160) originating in Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1531/93).

    June 18. Common customs tariff on products of Category 7 (Order No. 40.0070) originating in Malaysia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1532/93).

    June 22. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 4106.20.00 originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3821/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1590/93).

    June 22. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Codes ex 4202 and ex 4203 originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1591/93).

    July 1. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 4106.20.00 originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1778/93).

    July 12. Common customs tariff on products of Category 28 (Order No. 40.0280) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1872/93).

    July 12. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 19 and 68 (Order Nos. 40.0190 and 40.0680) originating in Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1873/93).

    July 12. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 27 and 84 (Order Nos. 40.0270 and 40.0840) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1874/93).

    July 12. Common customs tariff on products of Category 65 (Order No. 40.0650) originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1876/93).

    July 12. Common customs tariff on products of Category 39 (Order No. 40.0390) originating in Bulgaria, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1875/93).

    July 12. Common customs tariff on products of Category 75 (Order No. 40.0750) originating in Brazil and Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1877/93).

    July 12. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Codes 2937.21.00 and 2937.29.10 originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1878/93).

    July 12. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 3817 originating in the Republic of Korea, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1879/93).

    July 14. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code ex 4104 originating in Argentina, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1906/93).

    July 14. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 2817.00.00 originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1907/93).

    July 14. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code ex 4203, originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1908/93).

    July 19. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 2918.14.00 originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1952/93).

    July 19. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 4820.50.00 originating in the Republic of Korea, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1954/93).

    July 19. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Codes 6404 and 6405.90.10 originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1953/93).

    July 19. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 3802.10.00 originating in the People’s Republic of China to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1955/93).

    July 19. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code ex 8528 originating in Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1956/93).

    July 19. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code ex 4104 originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1957/93).

    August 2. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 2929.90.00 originating in Brazil, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2176/93).

    August 4. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Codes 3903, ex 3915, and ex 3920 originating in the Republic of Korea, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2211/93).

    August 4. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 3923.21.00 originating in Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2212/93).

    August 18. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 16, 18,42, and 127 A (Order Nos. 40.0160, 40.0180,40.0420, and 42.1271) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2310/93).

    August 18. Common customs tariff on products of Category 65 (Order No. 40.0650) originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2311/93).

    August 18. Common customs tariff on products of Category 90 (Order No. 40.0900) originating in the Republic of Korea, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2312/93).

    August 18. Common customs tariff on products of Category 20 (Order No. 40.0200) originating in Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2313/93).

    August 18. Common customs tariff on products of Category 97 (Order No. 40.0970) originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2314/93).

    August 18. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 5,20, and 33 (Order Nos. 40.0050,40.0200, and 40.0330) originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangement set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2315/93).

    August 24. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 3923.21.00. originating in Malaysia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2350/93).

    August 24. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 3503.00.10 originating in Brazil, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2351/93).

    August 24. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 3817 originating in Brazil, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2352/93).

    September 1. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 47, 86, and 90 (Order Nos. 40.0470, 40.0860, and 40.0900) originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2445/93).

    September 1. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 48 and 55 (Order Nos. 40.0480 and 40.0550) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2446/93).

    September 1. Common customs tariff on products of Category 48 (Order No. 40.0480) originating in Bulgaria, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2447/93).

    September 7. Common customs tariff on products of Category No. 35 (Order No. 40.0350) originating in Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2478/93).

    September 7. Common customs tariff on products of Category Nos. 14, 20, and 26 (Order Nos. 40.0140, 40.0200, and 40.0260) originating in Malaysia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2479/93).

    September 7. Common customs tariff on products of Category No. 16 (Order No. 40.0160) originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2480/93).

    September 7. Common customs tariff on products of Category No. 20 (Order No. 40.0200) originating in Iran, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2481/93).

    September 7. Common customs tariff on products of Category No. 31 (Order No. 40.0310) originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2482/93).

    September 13. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 1 and 26 (Order Nos. 40.0010 and 40.0260) originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2523/93).

    September 13. Common customs tariff on products of Category 35 (Order No. 40.0350) originating in Pakistan and Malaysia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2524/93).

    September 13. Common customs tariff on products of Category 97 (Order No. 40.0970) originating in Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2525/93).

    September 13. Common customs tariff on products of Category 38 B (Order No. 40.0385) originating in Bulgaria, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2526/93).

    September 13. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 58 and 144 (Order Nos. 40.0580 and 40.140) originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2527/93).

    September 16. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 6911 originating in the Philippines, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2557/93).

    September 16. Common customs tariff on products of Category 38 A (Order No. 40.0381) originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2558/93).

    September 16. Common customs tariff on products of Category 68 (Order No. 40.0680) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2559/93).

    September 21. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 2932.12.00 originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2592/93).

    September 29. Common customs tariff on products of Category 12 (Order No. 40.0120) originating in the Philippines, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2687/93).

    September 29. Common customs tariff on products of Category 13 (Order No. 40.0130) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832.90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2688/93).

    September 29. Common customs tariff on products of Category 78 (Order No. 40.0780) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2692/93).

    September 29. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 156 and 157 (Order Nos. 42.1560 and 42.1570) originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2693/93).

    September 29. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 17 and 68 (Order Nos. 40.0170 and 40.0680) originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2689/93).

    September 29. Common customs tariff on products of Category 58 (Order No. 40.0580) originating in Iran, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2691/93).

    September 29. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 17 and 85 (Order Nos. 40.0170 and 40.0850) originating in Bulgaria, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2690/93).

    October 4. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 6911 originating in Sri Lanka, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2740/93).

    October 4. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 9503 originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2742/93).

    October 4. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 3503.00.10 originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2741/93).

    October 18. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Codes 3102.30 and 3102.80.00 originating in Poland, to which the tariff ceilings set out in Council Regulation No. 3918/92 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2835/93).

    October 20. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Codes 2523 originating in Poland, the Czech Republic, and the Slovak Republic, to which the tariff ceilings set out in Council Regulation No. 3918/92 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2872/93).

    October 20. Common customs tariff on products of CN Codes 3102.10.10, ex 7304, ex 7305, and ex 7306 originating in Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Slovenia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, for which tariff ceilings were opened by Council Regulation No. 478/83, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2865/93).

    October 20. Common customs tariff on products of Category 112 (Order No. 40.1120) originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2910/93).

    October 20. Common customs tariff on products of Category 109 (Order No. 40.1090) originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2909/93).

    October 20. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 97 and 114 (Order Nos. 40.0970 and 40.1140) originating in Brazil, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2908/93).

    October 20. Common customs tariff on products of Category 100 (Order No. 40.1000) originating in the People’s Republic of China, India, and Malaysia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2907/93).

    October 20. Common customs tariff on products of Category 74 (Order No. 40.0740) originating in the People’s Republic of China and India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2906/93).

    October 20. Common customs tariff on products of Category 41 (Order No. 40.0410) originating in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2905/93).

    October 20. Common customs tariff on products of Category 124 (Order No. 42.1240, 01240) originating in the Republic of Korea, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2904/93).

    October 20. Common customs tariff on products of Category 113 (Order No. 40.1130) originating in India and Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2903/93).

    October 20. Common customs tariff on products of Category 75 (Order No. 40.0750) originating in Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2902/93).

    October 28. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 22,29, and 78 (Order Nos. 40.0220,40.0290, and 40.0780), originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2975/93).

    October 28. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 12 and 24 (Order Nos. 40.0120 and 40.0240) originating in Malaysia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2974/93).

    October 28. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 9 and 78 (Order Nos. 40.0090 and 40.0780) originating in Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangement set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2973/93).

    October 28. Common customs tariff on products of Category 74 (Order No. 40.0740) originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2972/93).

    October 28. Common customs tariff on products of Category 35 (Order No. 40.0350) originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2971/93).

    October 28. Common customs tariff on products of Category 22 (Order No. 40.0220) originating in the Philippines, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2970/93).

    October 28. Common customs tariff on products of Category 5 (Order No. 40.0050) originating in Brazil, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 2969/93).

    November 3. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code ex 8528 originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3047/93).

    November 3. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 2917.20.10 originating in Romania, to which the tariff ceilings set out in Council Regulation No. 1014/93 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3033/93).

    November 4. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 2933.71.00 originating in Poland, to which the tariff ceilings set out in Council Regulation No. 3918/93 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3051/93).

    November 9. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 15,18, and 83 (Order Nos. 40.0150,40.0180, and 40.0830) originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3092/93).

    November 9. Common customs tariff on products of Category 65 (Order No. 40.0650) originating in Argentina, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3093/93).

    November 9. Common customs tariff on products of Category 96 (Order No. 40.0960) originating in the People's Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3094/93).

    November 9. Common customs tariff on products of Category 124 (Order No. 42.1240) originating in Belarus, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3095/93).

    November 9. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 65 and 72 (Order Nos. 40.0650 and 40.0720) originating in the Republic of Korea, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3096/93).

    November 9. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 17, 19, and 76 (Order Nos. 40.0170, 40.0190, and 40.0760) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3097/93).

    November 9. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 19,26, and 28 (Order Nos. 40.0190,40.0260, and 40.0280) originating in Pakistan, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3098/93).

    November 9. Common customs tariff on products of Categories 28 and 76 (Order Nos. 40.0280 and 40.0760) originating in Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3099/93).

    November 25. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 7103 originating in Mexico, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3249/93).

    November 25. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 2924.29.30 originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3250/93).

    November 25. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 8712.00 originating in Malaysia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3251/93).

    November 25. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 3923.21.00 originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3252/93).

    November 30. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code ex 8471 originating in Singapore, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3302/93).

    November 30. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 8712.00 originating in Indonesia and Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3303/93).

    November 30. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Code 2921.42.10 originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3831/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3304/93).

    November 30. Common customs tariff on products of Category 3 (Order No. 40.0033) originating in India, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3305/93).

    November 30. Common customs tariff on products of Category 43 (Order No. 40.0430) originating in the People’s Republic of China, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3307/93).

    November 30. Common customs tariff on products of Category 37 (Order No. 40.0370) originating in Thailand, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3306/93).

    December 9. Common customs tariff on products falling within CN Codes 3904.10.00, 3904.21.00, and 3904.22.00 originating in Hungary, the Czech Republic, and the Slovak Republic, to which the tariff ceilings set out in Council Regulation No. 3918/92 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3374/93).

    December 13. Common customs tariff on products of Category 17 (Order No. 10.0170) originating in Indonesia, to which the preferential tariff arrangements set out in Council Regulation No. 3832/90 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3420/93).

    December 13. Common customs tariff on products of CN Codes 7202.41 and 7202.49 originating in the Republics of Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, for which tariff ceilings were opened by Council Regulation No. 478/83, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3423/93).

    December 27. Common customs tariff on fresh lemons originating in Cyprus was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3589/93).

    3. Repeal or Suspension

    February 25. Common customs tariff on certain mixtures of malt sprouts and barley screenings was suspended temporarily (Council Regulation No. 470/93).

    April 5. Common customs tariff on imports of mixtures of residues of the maize starch industry and of residues from the extraction of maize germ oil obtained by wet milling was suspended temporarily (Council Regulation No. 833/93).

    May 13. Common customs tariff on imports of multiflorous (spray) carnations originating in Israel was repealed (Commission Regulation No. 1173/93).

    June 7. Common customs tariff on a number of agricultural products was suspended temporarily (Council Regulation No. 1421/93).

    June 14. Common customs tariff on certain industrial products (in the chemical and allied sectors) was suspended temporarily (Council Regulation No. 1573/93).

    December 7. Common customs tariff on a number of products intended for the construction, maintenance, and repair of aircraft was suspended temporarily (Council Regulation No. 3543/93).

    December 10. Common customs tariff on certain industrial products (in the microelectronics and related sectors) was suspended temporarily (Council Regulation No. 3545/93).

    December 16. Common customs tariff on certain fishery products was suspended temporarily (Council Regulation No. 3568/93).

    December 20. Common customs tariff on certain agricultural products originating in Turkey was repealed (Council Regulation No. 3639/93).

    Preferential Tariff Arrangements

    1. Re-establishment

    January 12. Preferential customs duty on imports of multiflorous (spray) carnations originating in Morocco was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 44/93).

    March 17. Preferential customs duty on imports of single-flower (standard) carnations originating in Israel was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 617/93).

    July 16. Preferential customs duty on imports of small-flowered roses originating in Israel was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 1928/93).

    December 17. Preferential customs duty on imports of large-flowered roses originating in Israel was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3475/93).

    December 17. Preferential customs duty on imports of small-flowered roses originating in Israel was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3476/93).

    December 20. Preferential customs duty on products falling within CN Codes 2836.20.00 and 2836.30.00 originating in Poland, to which the tariff ceilings set out in Council Regulation No. 3918/92 apply, was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3502/93).

    December 21. Preferential customs duty on imports of multiflorous (spray) carnations originating in Israel was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3523/93).

    December 21. Preferential customs duty on imports of single-flower (standard) carnations originating in Israel was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3522/93).

    December 27. Preferential customs duty on imports of large-flowered roses originating in Israel was suspended, and the common customs tariff duty on imports of large-flowered roses originating in Israel was re-established (Commission Regulation No. 3594/93).

    Bulgaria, China, the Czech Republic, Hungary, the Russian Federation, and the Slovak Republic.

    The commercial banks are free to determine the margins on purchases and sales of foreign bank notes, but they do not charge commissions.

    At the end of 1993, Albania maintained bilateral payments agreements with Bulgaria, China, Cuba, the Czech Republic, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Romania, the Slovak Republic, and Viet Nam. At the end of 1993, Albania also maintained bilateral trade agreements providing for settlements in convertible currencies with Algeria, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, the Czech Republic, Cuba, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, and the states of the former U.S.S.R.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    Specified noncommercial settlements with Morocco and Tunisia are channeled through a dirham account at the Bank of Morocco and an account in Tunisian dinars at the Bank of Tunisia.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, ECUs, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    Arms and ammunition, ethnological collections, ships, ostrich products, cattle, and ivory products. Special export regimes apply to aircraft, animals and animal products, historical objects, minerals and mineral products, toxic substances, cotton, rice, pork, coffee, cereals, wood and wood products, tobacco, and petroleum.

    Defense, law and order, education, health, utilities, communications, and transport infrastructure.

    The Eastern Caribbean dollar is also the currency of Anguilla, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

    The Caricom countries are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago. Exports to Jamaica are settled in U.S. dollars.

    Since February 1, 1993, the reserve requirement has been allowed to be met partially in foreign or domestic currency, and the same reserve requirement ratio has been applied to foreign and domestic currency deposits. Financial institutions may cover all assets denominated in local currency with foreign exchange resources, except those in the form of savings and fixed-term deposits, up to a limit of 25 percent of their assessable capital and reserves. Financial institutions accepting savings and fixed-term deposits in foreign currencies must limit them to no more than six times the total of capital and reserves.

    Under the CAUCE, Uruguay may export limited amounts of specific goods with preferential treatment.

    At the end of 1993, Armenia maintained a bilateral payments agreement with Turkmenistan and bilateral trade agreements with the states of the former U.S.S.R.; these agreements provide for settlements in convertible currencies.

    On January 1, 1986, the Island of Aruba, which was formerly a part of the Netherlands Antilles, became a separate nonmetro-politan territory within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

    Canadian dollars, deutsche mark, European currency units, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Netherlands Antillean guilders, pounds sterling, and Swiss francs.

    The Australian dollar also circulates in several other countries, including Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu.

    Foreign currencies are defined as all currencies other than the Australian dollar.

    The areas covered by this agreement are those constituting the South Pacific Forum (in addition to Australia and New Zealand)—Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Western Samoa.

    Australia became a participant in the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (Cocom), effective May 1989.

    The quotas on cement and fertilizers expired on April 15, 1994.

    The currencies considered convertible are Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, deutsche mark, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, Turkish liras, and U.S. dollars. An official exchange rate against the ECU is also posted.

    A Presidential Decree was signed in January 1994 that prohibits the direct bilateral negotiation of exchange transactions between enterprises outside of the Baku Interbank Currency Exchange.

    The RHCF consists of a Presidential Fund (to finance essential imports such as wheat and medicine), a Fund for the Council of Ministers (to finance imports related to infrastructure development), and an Enterprise Fund (to finance certain approved imports).

    Foreign currency that the Central Bank permits to be retained and used or disposed of as investment currency. Such permission may exist for foreign currency accruing to residents of The Bahamas from the sale or redemption of foreign currency securities; or the sale, liquidation, redemption, or realization of property; or direct investments outside The Bahamas. The use of investment currency is prescribed for the purchase of foreign currency securities from nonresidents and the making of direct investments outside The Bahamas. In 1992, the volume of transactions in this market amounted to less than $1 million.

    Beginning in June 1988, the Central Bank established a branch of its Exchange Control Department in Grand Bahama to serve the foreign exchange needs of residents in that area.

    Foreign currencies comprise all-currencies other than the Bahamian dollar.

    Persons of foreign nationality who have been granted temporary resident status are treated in some respects as nonresidents but are not permitted to hold external accounts in Bahamian dollars.

    Except in the Family Islands, where this authority is delegated to clearing bank branches.

    Banks and trusts established in The Bahamas are exempt from certain exchange control regulations, particularly with regard to their offshore operations.

    Thirteen banks and trust companies are authorized to deal in Bahamian and foreign currency securities and to receive securities as deposits.

    Members of the Asian Clearing Union are Bangladesh, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

    Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. The Trading Company of Bangladesh maintains special trading agreements, with features of a bilateral payments arrangement, with companies in Egypt and Germany.

    The AMU is equivalent in value to the SDR and is used for recording transactions through the ACU.

    The accounts of the United Nations and its agencies are treated as resident accounts.

    The Caricom countries are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

    Foreign currencies comprise all currencies other than the Barbados dollar.

    Noncash balances are referred to as Belarussian rubles, and the term “rubel” is used to refer to the local coupon.

    Brestkombank, Poisk Bank, Bel Business Bank, Prior Bank, Dukat Bank, Belarus Bank, Belrnescheconombank, Belpromstroi-bank. Savings Bank, Belagroprombank, Vestbank, Commer-cia-Bank, and Complet.

    Domestic in this context refers to the territories of the states of the former U.S.S.R.

    At the end of 1993, Belarus maintained bilateral trade and/or payments agreements with Bulgaria, China, Cuba, the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Finland, Hungary, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Poland, Slovenia, and Viet Nam. Bilateral clearing accounts have been established with all of the states of the former U.S.S.R.

    The term encompasses residents of the states of the former U.S.S.R. that use the ruble, including the Russian Federation.

    Enterprises that produce for state orders have priority access to products imported under trade agreements.

    This exception also applies to cosignatory agreements, barter and compensatory deals, and re-exports.

    Joint ventures with foreign ownership exceeding 30 percent and exporting their own products are exempt.

    The former Soviet Union’s overall quota on exports of textiles to the members of the European Union was distributed among the states of the former U.S.S.R.

    The law on Foreign Investment of the Supreme Soviet (dated November 14, 1991) guarantees that terms offered to foreign investors would remain unchanged for at least five years.

    The United Kingdom withdrew from the exchange rate and intervention mechanism of the EMS on September 16, 1992, and Italy withdrew on September 17, 1992.

    Effective August 2, 1993, the intervention thresholds of the currencies participating in the ERM of the EMS, except those of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder, were widened from ±2.25 percent to ±15 percent around the bilateral central exchange rates; the fluctuation band of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder remained unchanged at ±2.25 percent.

    Import licenses are issued freely for a large number of products that originate in and are shipped from these countries.

    Most imports do not require an import license when imported from the member countries of the European Union (EU).

    Since January 1, 1991, this approval is no longer needed if the foreign company or individual involved is a resident of an EU country.

    The Caricom countries are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago. The Central Bank quotes exchange rates for Barbados dollars, Eastern Caribbean dollars, Guyana dollars, and Trinidad and Tobago dollars.

    Barbados dollars, Canadian dollars. Eastern Caribbean dollars, Guyana dollars, pounds sterling, Trinidad and Tobago dollars, and U.S. dollars.

    Lobster, shrimp, conch, fish, turtles, mahogany, and wild animals. For sugar, the export duty is 2 percent.

    The CFA franc is issued by the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) and is the common currency in Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.

    There is an inoperative payments agreement with Hungary.

    Effective August 1, 1993, the repurchase of CFAF notes of the BCEAO in circulation outside member countries of the WAMU was suspended.

    Including those made through foreign companies that are directly or indirectly controlled by persons in Benin and those made by branches or subsidiaries abroad of companies in Benin.

    Including those made by companies in Benin that are directly or indirectly under foreign control and those made by branches or subsidiaries of foreign companies in Benin.

    Effective February 14, 1992, the charge on capital goods was raised to 5 percent for the following two years.

    Deutsche mark, pounds sterling, South African rand, Swiss francs, and Zimbabwe dollars.

    Australian dollars, Canadian dollars, French francs, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Swedish kronor, European Currency Units, and SDRs.

    Since January 1, 1994, remittances for payments of imports of goods and services have been handled by the commercial banks without reference to the Bank of Botswana.

    The cruzeiro real replaced the cruzeiro at a conversion rate of 1,000 cruzeiro to 1 cruzeiro real on August 1, 1993.

    Bilateral accounts are also maintained with Hungary and Romania, but settlements are made in third-country currencies every 90 days, and interest rates payable on balances are based on those in the international capital market.

    Under instructions issued by the Economic Development Council, federal ministries and subordinate agencies and public enterprises are required to submit, for approval by the president, an annual investment program specifying their expected import requirements.

    Selected imports are exempt from the prior approval requirement, including imports to the free trade zone of Manaus, wheat and petroleum imports, imports under the drawback scheme, and imports of goods included in trade agreements negotiated with LAIA member countries.

    At the end of 1993, Bulgaria maintained bilateral payments agreements with Albania, Bangladesh, Belarus, Brazil, Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, Finland, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Islamic Republic of Iran, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malta, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Peru, Romania, the Russian Federation, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Ukraine.

    The CFA franc is issued by the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) and is the common currency in Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’voire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.

    Transfers between member countries of the WAMU are subject to the flat commission of CFAF 100 levied on settlements between agencies of the BCEAO.

    A bilateral agreement was negotiated with Ghana in 1970 but is inoperative.

    Including those made through foreign companies that are directly or indirectly controlled by persons residing in Burkina Faso and those made by branches or subsidiaries abroad of com panies having their headquarters in Burkina Faso.

    Including those made by companies operating in Burkina Faso that are directly or indirectly under foreign control and those made by branches or subsidiaries in Burkina Faso of for eign companies.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Kenya shillings, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, Rwanda francs, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, Tanzania shillings, Uganda shillings, U.S. dollars, and zaïres.

    Law on the Management of Foreign Exchange, Precious Metals and Stones, promulgated by Decree No.71 of the Council of State (dated August 31, 1991) and Sub-degree No. 29 of the Council of Ministers (dated November 8, 1991).

    The CFA franc circulating in Cameroon is issued by the Bank of Central African States (BEAC) and is also legal tender in the Central African Republic, Chad, the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon.

    Including those made through foreign companies that are directly or indirectly controlled by persons in Cameroon and those made by branches or subsidiaries abroad of companies in Cameroon.

    Including those made by companies in Cameroon that are directly or indirectly under foreign control and those made by branches or subsidiaries of foreign companies in Cameroon.

    As of the end of January 1994, Cameroon had not adopted these regulations.

    This restriction was eliminated for U.S.-owned banks under the Free Trade Agreement and for Mexican-owned banks under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    This measure will come into force once implementing legislation for the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is passed by Parliament.

    The CFA franc circulating in the Central African Republic is issued by the Bank of Central African States (BEAC) and is also legal tender in Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon.

    The authority delegated to the BEAC relates to (1) control over the external position of the banks, (2) the granting of exceptional travel allocations in excess of the basic allowances, and (3) control over the repatriation of net export proceeds.

    Including those made through foreign companies that are directly or indirectly controlled by persons in the Central African Republic and those made by branches or subsidiaries abroad of companies in the Central African Republic.

    Including those made by companies in the Central African Republic that are directly or indirectly under foreign control and those made by branches or subsidiaries of foreign companies in the Central African Republic.

    The CFA franc in circulation in Chad is issued by the Bank of Central African States (BEAC) and is legal tender also in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon.

    Including those made through foreign companies that are directly or indirectly controlled by persons in Chad and those made by overseas branches or subsidiaries of companies in Chad.

    Including those made by companies in Chad directly or indirectly under foreign control and those made by branches or sub sidiaries of foreign companies in Chad.

    This exchange subsidy is being phased out with the repayment of the covered debt and the reduction in the differential between the official reference rate and the preferential rate.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Hong Kong dollars, Iranian rials, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Macao patacas, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kro ner, Pakistan rupees, pounds sterling, Singapore dollars, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    The foreign exchange plan was abolished on January 1, 1994.

    The bilateral payments agreement with Bangladesh was terminated on January 1, 1993; an inoperative bilateral payments agreement is maintained with Mongolia.

    Nonresidents include Chinese working overseas and residents of foreign countries and of the Hong Kong and Macao regions. Diplomatic representatives are also included.

    Moftec itself issues licenses for some restricted imports into Beijing; for the rest, it delegates its authority to its special commission offices at major ports and to its regional counterparts, the Commissions on Foreign Economic Relations and Trade.

    At the end of 1993, 53 product items were on the restricted list, representing 38 percent of total import value in 1992.

    In principle, the restricted list can change on a monthly basis, and the items covered by the import plan also change. Therefore, the degree of overlap changes over time.

    Including those employed by enterprises that have been established with capital provided by Chinese residing abroad.

    The SAEC is the sole agency for monitoring and controlling China’s external borrowing. It permits the BOC and other financial and nonfinancial institutions responsible for undertaking commercial borrowing to contract short-term loans up to specified limits without prior approval. All bond issues, however, are subject to prior approval from the SAEC. In August 1987, comprehensive regulations were issued requiring that all foreign borrowing be registered with the SAEC. Borrowers who do not comply will not be permitted to transfer foreign exchange abroad to service their external debt obligations and will be subject to other penalties.

    To help individual enterprises balance their foreign receipts and payments, enterprises with a surplus of foreign exchange may sell it to enterprises with a deficit through the foreign exchange adjustment centers.

    The representative market exchange rate is calculated as the weighted average of buying and selling, effected by foreign exchange market intermediaries, excluding teller transactions (Resolution No. 21 of September 3, 1993).

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    The Banco de la República stands ready to sell foreign exchange warrants (títulos canjeables por certificados de cambio) to public enterprises in the electric sector and the National Federation of Coffee Growers (Federación National de Cafeteros) in accordance with the terms of Resolution 16/1991 of the Banco de la República. These warrants, expressed in U.S. dollars, have a maturity of 12 months and, in some cases, may also be exchanged for exchange certificates. Within their period of validity, warrants may also be sold to the Banco de la República for pesos at the certificate market buying rate on the date of repurchase. Warrants bear interest at the rate equal to that of the external loan, but never higher than the average 30-day rate on primary certificates of deposit at the close of operations in the New York market for the day before the certificate is issued less 1 percentage point if held by public sector recipients of external loans. Warrants held longer than 12 months may not be converted into exchange certificates but may be resold to the Banco de la República at the certificate market rate on the last day of the twelfth month.

    Imports or shipments with an f.o.b. value of less than US$500 are classified as minor imports and do not have to be registered with Incomex. All other imports are subject to registration.

    Loans by financial entities for the importation of goods also require registration. Public sector loans are subject to an interest rate ceiling of 2.5 percent over the New York prime rate or the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR).

    Bancoldex is entitled to lend up to US$350 million under this regime.

    Up to a total of US$100 for each product. These loans should be registered with the Banco de la República in order to avoid exceeding the limits.

    Currencies quoted on the Paris official market: Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, Djibouti francs, ECUs, Finnish markkaa, Greek drachmas, Irish pounds, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, U.S. dollars, and zaïres.

    The CFA franc circulating in the Congo is issued by the Bank of Central African States (BEAC) and is legal tender also in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon.

    Including those made through foreign companies that are directly or indirectly controlled by persons in the Congo and those made by overseas branches or subsidiaries of companies in the Congo.

    Including those involving the transfer, between nonresidents, of funds in the form of participation in the capital of a Congolese company.

    In November 1992, traders at the stock exchange were also permitted to operate in the foreign exchange market.

    CATs ceased to be issued to new exporters after December 31, 1992. Existing exporters continue to benefit from the CATs consistent with their specific contractual arrangements.

    Composed of the Minister of Finance, the Minister of Planning, and the President of the Central Bank.

    The CFA franc is issued by the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) and is the common currency in Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte ďIvoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.

    Transfers between member countries of the WAMU are subject to the flat commission of CFAF 100 levied on settlements between agencies of the BCEAO.

    Including those made through foreign companies that are directly or indirectly controlled by persons resident in Côte ďIvoire and those made by branches or subsidiaries abroad of companies resident in Côte ďIvoire.

    Including those made in Côte ďIvoire by companies that are directly or indirectly under foreign control and those made by branches or subsidiaries of foreign companies in Côte ďIvoire.

    The Croatian dinar is an interim currency, and the authorities are planning to replace it with a permanent currency by the end of May 1994.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    Foreign currencies are all currencies other than the Cyprus pound.

    The Czech Republic became a member of the IMF on January 1, 1993 through the membership of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republic.

    Koruny were issued on February 8, 1993 following the dissolution of the currency union with the Slovak Republic, which had used the Czechoslovak koruna as currency.

    Before May 3, 1993, the basket consisted of five currencies (deutsche mark, U.S. dollar, Austrian schilling, Swiss franc, and French franc).

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Greek drachmas, Irish pounds, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Luxembourg francs, Netherlands guilders, New Zealand dollars, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, Portuguese escudos, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and U.S. dollars.

    At the beginning of 1993, the Czech Republic maintained a bilateral payments agreement with the Islamic State of Afghanistan, which is inoperative, and, since February 1993, with the Slovak Republic.

    The incidence of customs tariffs was 5 percent in 1993 (measured as a weighted average).

    Effective August 2, 1993, the intervention thresholds of the currencies participating in the ERM of the EMS, except those of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder, were widened from ±2.25 percent to ±15 percent around the bilateral central exchange rates; the fluctuation band of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder remained unchanged at ±2.25 percent.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, deutsche mark, Greek drachmas, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Icelandic krónur, Irish pounds, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders. New Zealand dollars, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and U.S. dollars.

    The Eastern Caribbean dollar is also the currency of Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

    The Caricom countries are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

    Foreign currencies comprise all currencies other than the Eastern Caribbean dollar.

    The member countries are Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

    Imports of food, fertilizer, petroleum and its derivatives, medicine, newsprint paper and equipment, and agricultural products are exempt from this commission.

    Exporters of nontraditional products qualifying under the temporary import regime of Law No. 69 are also fully exempt from import duties.

    Since March 3, 1994, the proceeds originating from international credit card transactions have been allowed to be sold in the interbank market.

    This requirement was eliminated in May 1994.

    The CFA franc circulating in Equatorial Guinea is issued by the Bank of Central African States (BEAC) and is legal tender also in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Congo, and Gabon.

    Regulations on capital transactions, such as the sale of foreign securities in Equatorial Guinea or direct investments, have been prepared and are pending approval. The authorities are also in the process of drafting legislation aimed at stimulating foreign investment in the agricultural, forestry, construction, public works, mining, and industrial equipment maintenance sectors.

    At the end of 1993, Estonia maintained bilateral payments agreements with Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, the Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

    Under Fiji’s exchange control regulations, foreign currencies are all currencies other than the Fiji dollar.

    A nonresident is a person or firm whose country of normal domicile or established residence is a country other than Fiji. As regards individuals, a resident of Fiji is a person who either has lived, or intends to continue living, in Fiji for at least three years.

    Currently, all countries except the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

    Currently, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

    Effective August 2, 1993, the intervention thresholds of the currencies participating in the ERM of the EMS, except those of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder, were widened from ±2.25 percent to ±15 percent around the bilateral central exchange rates; the fluctuational band of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder remained unchanged at ±2.25 percent.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, Djibouti francs, ECUs, Finnish markkaa, Greek drachmas, Irish pounds, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, U.S. dollars, and zaïres.

    Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte ďIvoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo (franc de la Communauté financière Africaine, issued by the BCEAO); and Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon (franc de la Coopération financière Afrique centrale, issued by the BEAC).

    Comprising the institutes of issue of the Operations Account countries and the Overseas Institute of Issue (for New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Mayotte, and Wallis and Futuna Islands).

    The Islamic State of Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Bhutan, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Republic of Korea, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mexico, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Republic of Yemen.

    The CFA franc circulating in Gabon is issued by the Bank of Central African States (BEAC) and is legal tender also in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Congo, and Equatorial Guinea.

    Currently totaling about thirty items, including cement, ham, mineral water, plastic goods, sugar, batteries, and refined vegetable oil.

    Including those made through foreign companies that are directly or indirectly controlled by persons in Gabon and those made by branches or subsidiaries abroad of companies in Gabon.

    Including those made by companies in Gabon that are directly or indirectly under foreign control and those made by branches or subsidiaries in Gabon of foreign companies.

    On April 5, 1993, the National Bank of Georgia began to issue coupons, which circulate along with the Russian ruble; on August 3, 1993, the Georgian coupon was declared the sole legal tender.

    At the end of 1993, Georgia maintained bilateral payments agreements with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine.

    Effective August 2, 1993, the intervention thresholds of the currencies participating in the ERM of the EMS, except those of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder, were widened from ±2.25 percent to ±15 percent around the bilateral central exchange rates; the fluctuation band of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder remained unchanged at ±2.25 percent.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian and Luxembourg francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Irish pounds, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and U.S. dollars.

    Countries on List C are Albania, the former member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) except Hungary; the People’s Republic of China; the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea; and Viet Nam. All other countries are on List A/B.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, CFA francs, Danish kroner, French francs, deutsche mark, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, New Zealand dollars, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    Ghana maintains bilateral payments agreements with Bulgaria, China, Cuba, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, and the Slovak Republic. These agreements are inoperative, and the clearing balances are being settled.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Cyprus pounds, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, European currency units (ECUs), French francs, Irish pounds, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, Portuguese escudos, and Spanish pesetas.

    The Eastern Caribbean dollar is also the currency of Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

    The Caricom countries are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

    Foreign currencies include all currencies other than the Eastern Caribbean dollar.

    Any person or enterprise that wants to purchase more than $5,000 can participate in the public auction of foreign exchange. The banks and foreign exchange houses meet demand for foreign currency below $5,000, at a freely agreed exchange rate. The public sector and private importers of oil have the option of purchasing foreign exchange outside the auction. The BOG sells foreign exchange to these buyers at the reference exchange rate, which is equivalent to the buying rate plus 1 percent.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    Guinea maintains bilateral payments agreements with China, Cuba, and Viet Nam; all agreements are inoperative.

    For the operations of the Caricom Bilateral Settlement Arrangements, the Bank of Guyana sets rates for the Caricom currencies every Friday on the basis of the average rates of the commercial banks and the five largest nonbank cambio dealers in the week ending the preceding Wednesday. The currencies to which this rate applies are the Barbados dollar, the Eastern Caribbean dollar, and the Belize dollar.

    Foreign currencies comprise all currencies other than the Guyana dollar.

    As a first step, the maximum tariff rate was lowered to 30 percent on January 14, 1994.

    The reference rate is the weighted average of the exchange rates of all commercial banks, money brokers, and cambios.

    As of December 31, 1991, only the surrender requirement applicable to export proceeds was being enforced.

    Over 1,600 products from other Central American countries are exempt from customs duties, except for an import surcharge of 5 percent.

    Hong Kong is a nonmetropolitan territory in respect of which the United Kingdom has accepted the Fund’s Articles of Agreement.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Irish pounds, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Kuwaiti dinars, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, U.S. dollars, and ECUs. In addition to the above, exchange rates are quoted for bank notes and traveler’s checks in Greek drachmas.

    These are arrangements providing for settlements in convertible currencies at world market prices, with no official overdraft, credit, or clearing facilities.

    See footnote no. 2.

    See footnote no. 2.

    Act No. 32 of May 12, 1978.

    Act No. 19 of April 6, 1966.

    Bangladesh, Islamic Republic of Iran, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka; Nepal is a member of the ACU, but the Reserve Bank does not deal in Nepalese rupees.

    All remittances by nationals of China to any country outside India and all remittances to China by any person resident in India, whether for personal or trade purposes, were prohibited with effect from November 3, 1962. Since the resumption of trade between India and China, remittances arising out of trade transactions are permitted in conformity with exchange control regulations. All non-trade-related transactions with China or nationals of China continue to be prohibited unless generally or specifically authorized. Authorized dealers are permitted to open rupee accounts on their books in the names of their branches or correspondents in China or Pakistan without prior reference to the Reserve Bank but must obtain approval before opening such accounts in the names of branches of Pakistani or Chinese banks operating outside Pakistan and China, respectively. Authorized dealers may effect remittances to Pakistan on behalf of private importers as in the case of imports from other countries; they may also effect certain types of personal remittances in accordance with regulations applicable to such remittances; remittances for other purposes require prior approval from the Reserve Bank.

    However, residents of Nepal obtain their foreign exchange requirements from the Nepal Rastra Bank.

    The exportation of certain products, including some mineral ores and concentrates, is permitted subject to licensing.

    These include all forms of wildlife, including their parts and products; exotic birds; all items of wild flora included in Appendix I of the convention on International Trade in Endangered Species; beef; human skeletons; tallow, fats and/or oils of any animal origin excluding fish oil; and wood and wood products in the form of logs, timber, stumps, roots, barks, chips, powder, flakes, dust, pulp, and charcoal. With effect from April 1, 1991, wild orchids, chemicals included in Schedule I of the Chemical Weapons Convention of the United Nations, sandalwood excluding some fully finished products, and red sanders wood in any form were included on the prohibited list of exports.

    Exports of footwear and roasted and salted peanuts are permitted on a decontrolled basis.

    Since March 1, 1992, 40 percent of receipts have been required to be surrendered at the official exchange rate, whereas the remaining 60 percent have been allowed to be sold at the free market rate. Fifteen percent of receipts to be surrendered at the free market exchange rate may be retained in foreign currency accounts with banks in India. Since March 1, 1993, 100 percent of receipts have been allowed to be sold at the free market rate.

    Persons of Indian nationality or origin who reside abroad may invest freely in any public or private limited company engaged in any activity except agricultural or plantation activities and real estate business (excluding real estate development, that is, construction of houses, etc.), or in any partnership or proprietary concern engaged in any activity other than real estate business and agricultural or plantation activity, provided that funds for investment are either remitted from abroad through normal banking channels or are drawn from their nonresident accounts, that an undertaking is given that repatriation of the capital invested or the profits and dividends arising therefrom will not be requested, and that overall limits on holdings of shares and convertible debentures bought through the stock exchange by nonresident Indians (see below) are adhered to. Overseas companies, societies, and partnership firms that are owned to the extent of at least 60 percent by nonresidents of Indian nationality or origin and overseas trusts in which at least 60 percent of the beneficial interest is irrevocably held by nonresident Indians are also allowed to invest in any public or private limited companies in accordance with the above provisions. Nonresident Indians and overseas companies as defined above may use funds derived from fresh remittances or held in their nonresident (external) or foreign currency (nonresident) accounts to (1) make portfolio investments, with repatriation benefits, up to 1 percent of the capital, provided that their holdings of shares and convertible debentures held on either a repatriable or nonrepatriable basis do not exceed (a) 5 percent of the paid-up capital of the company concerned or (b) 5 percent of the total paid-up value of each series of convertible debentures issued by the company concerned. However, if a company so resolves through a General Body Resolution, then purchases of shares or debentures of such a company could be made up to 24 percent as against 5 percent mentioned at (b) above; (2) invest freely in National Savings Certificates with full repatriation benefits; (3) invest up to 40 percent of the new equity capital issued by a company setting up industrial manufacturing projects, hospitals (including diagnostic centers), hotels of at least three-star category, and shipping, software, and oil exploration services with repatriation rights for capital and income, subject to deduction of applicable Indian taxes; and (4) invest up to 100 percent of new investments, including expansion of existing industrial undertakings in specified priority industries listed in Annex III to the Statement on New Industrial Policy with free repatriation of such investment. Income from the investment will also be allowed to be repatriated after deduction of applicable domestic taxes. Nonresident Indians and overseas companies as defined above may also place funds with public limited companies in India as deposits, with full repatriation benefits, provided that (1) the deposits are made for three years, (2) the deposits are made in conformity with the prevailing rules and within the limits prescribed for acceptance of deposits by such companies, and (3) the funds are made available by the depositors through remittances from abroad or through payments from their nonresident (external) or foreign currency (nonresident) accounts. Special tax concessions apply to investments by nonresident Indians.

    Since March 1, 1992, foreign exchange allowances at the free market rate have been granted up to $500 a person, or $1,000 a family, to cover initial expenses.

    Those commonly used in Indonesia’s international transactions: Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Brunei dollars, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, French francs, Hong Kong dollars, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Malaysian ringgit, Netherlands guilders, New Zealand dollars, Norwegian kroner, Philippine pesos, pounds sterling, Singapore dollars, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and Thai baht.

    Items affected by such controls include clove seeds, logs, fertilizer, cement, construction reinforcements of iron, automobile tires, paper, asphalt, stearin, cattle, salt, wheat flour, maize, soybeans, rice, copra, olein, raw rattan, meat, and all goods from subsidized raw materials.

    Under this scheme, exporters are classified as producer-exporters (firms that export at least 65 percent of their total production) or as exporter-producers (firms that export 85 percent of their production and producers of textiles in general). Producer-exporters may bring into the country their imports free of licensing restrictions and import duties, but with ex post documentation. If exporter-producers can demonstrate that their output was, or will be, exported or that their output was an input in an exported output, then they can also receive the same permission to import their inputs as producer-exporters. The scheme also allows indirect exporters to reclaim import duties through a duty drawback facility.

    The following are exempt from these requirements: (1) sources of import financing derived from soft loans and loans from the World Bank, the Islamic Development Bank, and the Asian Development Bank; (2) domestic components contained in the contract with the foreign suppliers, such as components of services, goods, and taxes or duties; (3) services that are used by various government agencies related to specific expertise, such as foreign accountants, lawyers, surveyors, consultants’ services, purchases of technology (patents), etc.; and (4) purchases or imports under the joint-venture system between state companies and foreign companies.

    The member countries of the ACU are Bangladesh, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    Effective August 2, 1993, the intervention thresholds of the currencies participating in the ERM of the EMS, except those of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder, were widened from ±2.25 percent (in the case of Portugal and Spain, 6 percent) to ±15 percent around the bilateral central exchange rates; the fluctuation band of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder remained unchanged at ±2.25 percent.

    With effect from September 17, 1992, Italy withdrew from the exchange rate and intervention mechanism of the European Monetary System.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, ECUs, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Greek drachmas, Irish pounds, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and U.S. dollars.

    Similar restrictions were applied against Haiti, Libya, and the movement UNITA in Angola toward the end of 1993.

    At the beginning of 1994, the European Union (EU) established a common regulation of imports in place of national rules.

    All currencies other than the Jamaica dollar are considered foreign currencies. All foreign currencies have been designated as specified currencies.

    This list comprises Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Haiti, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, and the states of the former U.S.S.R. Exports to these countries require a specific license. In practice, no licenses are issued for exports to Haiti and South Africa.

    Belgian francs, deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, pounds sterling, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    These include imports made on behalf of His Majesty the King, imports by government departments and certain approved institutions, and goods in transit.

    Approval is not granted for the crediting of such Jordanian currency to a nonresident account or for the remittance abroad of the equivalent in foreign currency.

    The tenge was issued on November 15, 1993 as the national currency and became the sole legal tender in Kazakhstan as of November 18, 1993.

    At the end of 1993 Kazakhstan maintained bilateral payments agreements with China, Cuba, and all of the states of the former U.S.S.R. except Estonia.

    Exemptions are permitted for payments to residents providing freight, insurance, or other intermediary services in respect of foreign currency-denominated trade; payments to residents supplying inputs required for the production of exports sold for foreign currencies; payments for selected domestic telecommunications services; payments to banks and other financial institutions in respect of liabilities incurred in foreign currencies; and where otherwise specially authorized by the NBK.

    Included in the export quota list for 1994 are oil, coal, various fuels, copper, zinc, lead, bauxite, ferrous metals, tin, raw leather, cotton fiber, pure wool, sturgeon caviar, and cereals.

    Canadian dollars, deutsche mark, Fiji dollars, Hong Kong dollars, Japanese yen, New Zealand dollars, Papua New Guinea kina, pounds sterling, Singapore dollars, Solomon Islands dollars, Swiss francs, U.S. dollars, Tongan pa’anga, Vanuatu vatu, and Western Samoa tala.

    Foreign currencies are defined as all currencies other than the Australian dollar.

    In addition to the Hong Kong dollar, the prescribed currencies are those of the member countries of the IMF that have accepted the obligations of Article VIII of the Articles of Agreement.

    In addition, all imports from and all exports to these countries are prohibited; payments may not be made to or received from them for any type of transaction.

    The som was issued on May 10, 1993, and the conversion (from the Russian ruble to the som) was completed by May 15, 1993.

    The countries with which the Kyrgyz Republic has bilateral trade agreements are China, Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Romania, Turkey, and all the states of the former U.S.S.R., except Latvia and Estonia.

    These include oil and oil products, natural gas, coal, ores and concentrates, non-ferrous and rare metals, scrap ferrous and non-ferrous metals, precious metals and stones, grain, cotton, wool, leather, tobacco, silk cocoons, sugar beet seeds, herbs, and certain medicines.

    Deutsche mark, French francs, Japanese yen, pounds sterling, Swiss francs, and Thai baht.

    Effective July 20, 1992, the Latvian ruble replaced the Russian ruble as legal tender in Latvia, and in March 1993, the lats began to be issued as permanent currency at the conversion rate of Latvian ruble 200 per Lats 1. At this conversion rate, the exchange rate of the lats for the U.S. dollar was Lats 1 per US$1.5. The Latvian lats became the sole legal tender effective October 18, 1993.

    At the end of 1993, Latvia maintained bilateral payments agreements with Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Lithuania, Moldova, the Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. At the end of 1993, Latvia also maintained Intergovernmental Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreements providing for most-favored-nation status with Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Cuba, the European Union, Hungary, Iceland, India, Moldova, Poland, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Similar agreements were signed in 1992 with the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. Latvia had free trade agreements with Norway, Finland, Sweden, and Switzerland.

    U.S. dollar notes, which used to form the major portion of the currency in circulation, have almost totally disappeared. Full convertibility between the Liberian dollar and the U.S. dollar at par does not, de facto, exist. The U.S. dollar attracts a substantial premium in large parallel market transactions, and commercial banks charge abnormally high commissions for their sales of offshore funds. Foreign exchange dealers other than banks are permitted to buy and sell currencies other than the U.S. dollar at market-determined exchange rates.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, Saudi Arabian riyals, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, Tunisian dinars, and U.S. dollars.

    These include mineral water, fruit juices, instant tea, certain types of coffee, green vegetables, poultry, preserved meats and vegetables, alcoholic beverages, peanuts, oriental rugs, soaps, envelopes, crystal chandeliers, toy guns, luxury cars, and furs.

    These are 11 essential food items, medicine, insecticides, petroleum products, tobacco, and gold.

    Until the end of September 1992, both the Russian ruble and the general purpose coupon (talonas; plural talonai) introduced on May 1, 1992 were legal tender. On October 1, 1992, the Russian ruble was declared a foreign currency, and the talonas became the sole legal tender, pending the introduction of the litas, the national currency. On June 25, 1993, the litas was introduced and the temporary currency, the talonas, was phased out over a period of 26 days, ending in July 1993. The talonas was converted into litas at the rate of 100:1.

    The accounting rates for the convertible currencies are identical to the middle rates on Tuesdays and at the end of each month, whereas the accounting rates for the currencies of the states of the former U.S.S.R. are calculated by the Bank of Lithuania by using the cross rates for the U.S. dollar quoted by the respective central banks.

    At the end of December 1993, Lithuania maintained bilateral payments agreements with Bulgaria, China, Cuba, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and the Slovak Republic. Most of these agreements, however, have become de facto inoperative. Correspondent accounts exist between the Bank of Lithuania and the central banks of the independent states of the former U.S.S.R. (except Armenia and Georgia). These accounts need not be used for payments originating after October 1992. Ruble-denominated correspondent accounts maintained with the central banks of the independent states of the former U.S.S.R. have been closed and are in the process of being settled.

    The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia succeeded to the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the IMF on December 14, 1992.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, pounds sterling, Swiss francs, and U.S. dollars.

    Under Malawi’s exchange control regulations, all currencies other than the Malawi kwacha are considered foreign currencies.

    Certain agricultural and food products, new (military-type) and used clothing, gold, sugar, fertilizers, flick knives, explosives, arms and ammunition, game traps, mist nets, wild animals, live fish, cassava, and copyrighted articles.

    The surtax is levied on both imported and domestically produced manufactured goods.

    Implements of war, petroleum products, nickel, atomic energy materials, and certain agricultural and animal products.

    The cess is also levied, with some exemptions, on tobacco sold locally and on hides and skins at the rate of 2 percent of export value.

    The limit was raised to RM 50,000, effective February 1, 1994.

    The limit was increased to RM 50,000, effective February 1, 1994.

    The limit was raised to RM 50,000, effective February 1, 1994.

    The limit was increased to RM 50,000, effective February 1, 1994.

    The CFA franc is issued by the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) and is the common currency in Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.

    Investment income flows of the banking system are excluded from current account transactions for the purpose of calculating the currency weights.

    Foreign currencies are defined as all currencies other than the Maltese lira.

    For purposes of exchange allocations for travel and study, residents are defined as persons who are living in Malta and have either lived in Malta for at least three years or intend to continue living in Malta for at least three years.

    As one of these formalities, the Central Bank required certification that certain obligations in contracts with domestic banks that lent to the company have not been breached. This certification requirement is no longer necessary from January 1994.

    For the purposes of this act, the term nonresidents includes individuals who are not residing in Malta but excludes Maltese citizens living abroad and foreign spouses of citizens of Malta; and any association of persons, or any entity, whether corporate or not, if (1) it is registered outside Malta, (2) it has its principal place of residence or business outside Malta, (3) 25 percent or more of its shares or other capital is owned by a nonresident person, or (4) it is in any manner, whether directly or indirectly, controlled by one or more nonresident persons.

    The Marshall Islands must consult the United States if it decides to issue its own currency.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, CFA francs, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Moroccan dirhams, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    Including those made by companies in Mauritania that are directly or indirectly under foreign control and those made by branches or subsidiaries of foreign companies in Mauritania.

    Including those made through foreign companies that are directly or indirectly controlled by persons in Mauritania and those made by branches or subsidiaries abroad of companies in Mauritania.

    The exchange control regulations of Mauritius define foreign currencies as all currencies other than the Mauritian rupee.

    On January 1, 1993, a new currency, the new Mexican peso, equivalent to 1,000 (old) Mexican pesos, was introduced.

    These regions are the free trade zones of Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, Quintana Roo, and the partial Baja California free trade zone of Sonora.

    The Federated States of Micronesia became a member of the IMF on June 24, 1993.

    The Federated States of Micronesia must consult with the United States if it decides to issue its own currency.

    The Compact Agreement with the United States exempts the importation, use, possession, and exportation of the U.S. currency by U.S. armed forces and U.S. contractors or personnel from any form of regulation, restriction, or control by the Feder.

    Article XII, Section 4 of the Constitution of the Federated States of Micronesia prohibits a noncitizen or a corporation not wholly owned by citizens from acquiring title to land or waters in the country.

    Article XII, Section 5 of the Constitution prohibits “agreements for the use of land for an indefinite period.”.

    The national currency, the Moldovan leu, was introduced on November 29, 1993 at the conversion rate of 1,000 Moldovan rubles to 1 leu.

    At the end of 1993, Moldova maintained bilateral trade agreements with China, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Slovak Republic. These agreements contain the most-favored-nation clause and, with the exception of the agreement with Romania, specify that settlements are to be made in convertible currencies at world market prices.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, European currency units (ECUs), Finnish markkaa, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Kuwaiti dinars, Mauritanian ouguiya, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Saudi Arabian riyals, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, Tunisian dinars, U.A.E. dirhams, and U.S. dollars.

    Gibraltar pounds.

    The members of the SACU are Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland.

    A nonresident is a person (that is, a natural person or legal entity) whose normal place of residence, domicile, or registration is outside the CMA.

    Australian dollars, Canadian dollars, deutsche mark, French francs, Indian rupees, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, pounds sterling, Swiss francs, and Singapore dollars. In addition, buying rates are quoted for Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Danish kroner, Hong Kong dollars, Italian lire, Saudi Arabian riyals, and Swedish kronor.

    Effective August 2, 1993, the intervention thresholds of the currencies participating in the ERM of the EMS, except those of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder, were widened from ±2.25 percent to ±15 percent around the bilateral central exchange rates; the fluctuation band of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder remained unchanged at ±2.25 percent.

    The only transit trade transactions still subject to specific license are purchases and of strategic goods.

    State trading countries are defined for this purpose as consisting of China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and Viet Nam.

    The lead management requirements are expected to be revoked as of June 1, 1994.

    The Netherlands Antilles is a nonmetropolitan territory, in respect of which the Kingdom of the Netherlands has accepted the Fund’s Articles of Agreement. On January 1, 1986, the island of Aruba, formerly a part of the Netherlands Antilles, became a separate nonmetropolitan territory within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

    Aruban florins, Canadian dollars, deutsche mark, European currency units, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, pounds sterling, Suriname guilders, and Swiss francs. All currencies other than the Netherlands Antillean guilder are considered foreign currencies.

    Payments by certain entities, for example, international companies and pension funds, are exempted from the foreign exchange tax.

    Foreign currencies are defined as all currencies other than New Zealand currency.

    The islands under this arrangement constitute the South Pacific Forum (in addition to Australia and New Zealand)—Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Western Samoa.

    The CFA franc is issued by the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) and is the common currency in Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.

    Including those made through foreign companies directly or indirectly controlled by persons in Niger and those made by branches or subsidiaries abroad of companies in Niger.

    Including those made by companies in Niger that are directly or indirectly under foreign control and those made by branches or subsidiaries of foreign companies in Niger.

    The following items are exempt from the inspection requirement: gold; precious stones; works of art; explosives and pyrotechnic products; ammunition; implements of war; live animals; fresh, chilled, frozen, or canned fruits and vegetables; scrap metals; household and personal effects, including used motor vehicles; parcel post or samples; and petroleum and refined petroleum products.

    As of February 4, 1994, manufacturing and agricultural sectors were allocated 50 percent and 10 percent, respectively, of total foreign exchange allocation. Of the remainder, 30 percent was allocated to imports of finished goods and 10 percent was sold for payments for invisibles.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, Finnish Markka, French francs, Greek drachmas, Icelandic króna, Irish pounds, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and U.S. dollars.

    Residents may also open foreign exchange accounts at domestic banks without restriction.

    Different rules apply to the nonresident rupee accounts of individuals, firms, or companies, on the one hand, and to the nonresident rupee accounts of banks, on the other hand.

    Some of the currently prohibited imports fall outside these categories (i.e., some prohibited items are not produced in Pakistan and do not fit into the category of goods banned for relious, health, or luxury consumption reasons).

    Licensing restrictions apply only to arms and ammunition.

    Prohibited exports include ferrous and nonferrous metals (excluding iron and steel manufactured goods), edible oils, grains, gur, sari and jaggary powder, certain dairy products, certain live animals, animal fats, beef, mutton, timber, certain hides and skins, pulses and beans, wet-blue leather made from cowhides and calfhides, wheat straw, charcoal, pepper, certain animal products, intoxicants, certain seeds, raw cotton, wooden crates, arms, ammunition, explosives, fissionable material, maps and charts, paper waste, unfinished hockey sticks and blades, human skeletons, all imported goods, and antiques.

    The industries included are textiles and clothing (other than spinning), leather and leather manufactures, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, engineering and electronics, ceramics, furniture, sporting goods, surgical instruments, and cutlery.

    The exceptions are raw cotton; cotton yarn; fish other than frozen and preserved; mutton and beef; petroleum products; crude vegetable material; wool and animal hair; crude animal material; feedstuff for animals; all grains including grain flour; stone, sand, and gravel; waste and scrap of all kinds; crude fertilizer; oilseeds, nuts, and kernels; jewelry exported under the Entrustment Scheme; live animals; hides and skins; wet-blue leather; inorganic elements, oxides, etc.; crude minerals; works of art and antiques; all metals; fur skins; and wood in rough or squared form.

    Under specified conditions, authorized dealers may grant concessional finance, without the State Bank’s approval, against an irrevocable letter of credit or a firm export order.

    Foreign currencies are defined as all currencies other than the kina.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Bahrain dinars, Belgian francs, Brunei dollars, Canadian dollars, deutsche mark, French francs, Hong Kong dollars, Indonesian rupiahs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Kuwaiti dinars, Malaysian ringgit, Netherlands guilders, pounds sterling, Saudi Arabian riyals, Singapore dollars, Swiss francs, Thai baht, U.A.E. dirhams, U.S. dollars, and other such currencies that may be declared acceptable by the Central Bank.

    The basket consists of (figures in parentheses represent weights) the U.S. dollar (45 percent); the deutsche mark (35 percent); the pound sterling (10 percent); the French franc (5 percent); and the Swiss franc (5 percent).

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Greek drachmas, Indian rupees, Italian lire, Iranian rials, Irish pounds, Japanese yen, Kuwaiti dinars, Lebanese pounds, Libyan dinars, Luxembourg francs, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, Portuguese escudos, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, U.S. dollars, Turkish liras, and Yugoslav dinars.

    Since January 13, 1992, banks in Poland have been given more freedom in determining the exchange rates to use in foreign exchange transactions. Specifically, they are permitted to set buying and selling rates within a margin of 2 percent around the middle rate set by the NBP. Banks’ transactions with the NBP now take place at the buy/sell ratio set by the NBP, whereas previously they took place at the NBP’s middle rate.

    Foreign exchange bureaus (kantory) must obtain licenses to operate in the parallel exchange market.

    Effective August 2, 1993, the intervention thresholds of the currencies participating in the ERM of the EMS, except those of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder, were widened from ±2.25 percent (in the case of Portugal and Spain, 6 percent) to ±15 percent around the bilateral central exchange rates; the luctuation band of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder remained unchanged at ±2.25 percent.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, European currency units (ECUs), Finnish markkaa, French francs, Greek drachmas, talian lire, Irish pounds, Japanese yen, Macao patacas, Nether-mds guilders, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, South African rand, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs. The Macao pataca is pegged to the Hong Kong dollar at a parity rate of P 1.03 per HK$1.

    Foreign exchange transactions between nonbank legal persons outside the auction sessions have been prohibited since January 1, 1994.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Greek drachmas, Indian rupees, Irish pounds, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Luxembourg francs, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and Turkish liras.

    The amount was changed to $500, effective January 1, 1994.

    At the end of 1993, Romania maintained bilateral payments agreements with Albania, Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, Ghana, Greece, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Pakistan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and the former CMEA countries.

    The MICEX is a joint stock company of resident foreign exchange banks and nonbank licensed organizations. The Central Bank of Russia is a shareholder and founder of the MICEX. The CBR issues three kinds of foreign exchange license: internal licenses, which allow a bank to deal in foreign exchange inside the Russian Federation, including establishing foreign exchange bureaus, and to open correspondent accounts in the banks of the former U.S.S.R. abroad (e.g., Moscow Narodony); limited licenses, which allow banks to open up to six correspondent accounts in banks of their choice, in addition to correspondent accounts in former Soviet banks abroad and to deal in up to six currencies; and general licenses, which allow banks to carry out the full range of foreign exchange operations, including portfolio transactions. The MICEX receives a commission in U.S. dollars of 0.1 percent on net purchases of U.S. dollars and a commission in rubles of 0.1 percent on net purchases of rubles. The other currency exchanges of the Russian Federation are organized in a similar manner as the MICEX; the CBR is not necessarily a shareholder of these exchanges but may operate on them.

    The official rate was defined by the Soviet Gosbank in relation to a currency basket of six convertible currencies, and the value of that unit of account therefore fluctuates with the exchange rates of those currencies.

    End-of-day exposures must not exceed $100,000 for each Rub 1 billion of capital up to Rub 10 billion. Exposures of banks with a capital exceeding Rub 10 billion must obtain individual limits from the CBR.

    A local turnover tax of 0.1 percent has been imposed by the city of Moscow since March 1, 1994.

    Most of this balance was renegotiated on market terms following the demonetization of the pre-1993 rubles and after the CBR ceased to extend new credit to these central banks.

    Reduced to $2,000 on January 1, 1994.

    In 1993, Type IV quotas covered mixtures of oil products, waste paper, textiles for export to the EU, scrap ferrous metals, and medicinal raw materials of plant or animal origin.

    Presidential Decree No. 628 of June 14, 1992. Each intermediary is allowed a specific list of exports. Intermediaries are allowed to charge a commission of between 0.5 percent and 2 percent, depending on the product.

    Oil- and gas-producing enterprises are exempt from export duties for the decentralized portion of their exports. This exemption does not apply to enterprises with foreign investments registered after January 1, 1992, and providing goods for centralized exports.

    A presidential decree of September 27, 1993, introduced several provisions to protect foreign investment, including a “grandfather” clause that protects foreign investments for a three-year period from regulatory acts that would adversely affect their activities and a provision that any restrictions on activities of foreign investors can be introduced only by laws of the Russian Federation or by presidential decree.

    The Eastern Caribbean dollar is also the currency of Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montser-rat, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

    The Caricom countries are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

    The Eastern Caribbean dollar is also the currency of Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

    The Caricom countries are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

    Foreign currencies comprise all currencies other than the Eastern Caribbean dollar.

    The Eastern Caribbean dollar is also the currency of Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montser-rat, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Lucia.

    The Caricom countries are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

    Foreign currencies include all currencies other than the Eastern Caribbean dollar.

    The OECS comprises Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

    The banana industry was exempted from this customs service charge on January 1, 1994.

    The Monetary Agreement between San Marino and Italy, renewed on December 21, 1991, provides for San Marino to issue annually agreed amounts of San Marino lira coins equivalent in form to Italian coinage; these coins will be legal tender in both countries. The San Marino gold scudo is also issued but is legal tender only in San Marino. It is not generally used in transactions because its numismatic value exceeds its defined legal value (Lit 50,000 per 1 scudo).

    In addition, all imports from and all exports to these countries are prohibited; payments may neither be made to them nor received from them for any type of transaction, whether current or capital.

    The CFA franc is issued by the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) and is the common currency in Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.

    Transfers between member countries of the WAMU are free of commission.

    Including investments made through foreign companies that are directly or indirectly controlled by persons in Senegal and those made by overseas branches or subsidiaries of companies in Senegal.

    Including those made by companies in Senegal that are directly or indirectly under foreign control and those made by branches or subsidiaries of foreign companies in Senegal.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, CFA francs, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escodos, pounds sterling, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and U.S. dollars.

    The income tax was lowered to 1 percent effective January 1, 1994.

    The Slovak koruna was issued on February 4, 1993, following the dissolution of the currency union with the Czech Republic.

    The currencies are U.S. dollars, deutsche mark, Austrian schillings, French francs, and Swiss francs.

    The Republic of Slovenia (along with the Republic of Croatia) succeeded to the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with effect from December 14, 1992.

    In these cases, tolars may be converted only into the currency of the country of the person’s residence and under conditions of reciprocity.

    With effect from January 20, 1992, the approval limit of authorized dealers were established at SI$5,000 a transaction, SI$5,000 a customer a week, and SI$25,000 a customer a year. On February 18, 1993, the limit on individual transactions approved by authorized dealer was raised to SI$25,000.

    During 1993, the IMF did not receive from the Somali authorities the information needed for a description of the exchange and trade system.

    Deutsche mark, Djibouti francs, French francs, Italian lire, Kuwaiti dinars, pounds sterling, Saudi Arabian rivals, Swiss francs, and U.A.E. dirhams.

    Authorized dealers can permit, without the Reserve Bank’s approval, advance payment of up to 33⅓ percent of the ex factory cost of capital goods if suppliers require it.

    Lilangeni bank notes issued by Swaziland, maloti bank notes issued by Lesotho, and Namibia dollar notes issued by Namibia are freely convertible into rand at par, but they are not legal tender in South Africa.

    Foreign currency, foreign exchange, exchange, and specified currency refer to any currency other than currency that is legal tender in the Republic of South Africa but not to the currencies of Lesotho and Swaziland.

    A nonresident is a natural or juridical person whose usual place of residence, domicile, or registration is outside the Common Monetary Area.

    Securities are defined not only as quoted stocks, shares, debentures, and rights, but also as unquoted shares in public companies, shares in private companies, government, municipal, and public utility stocks, nonresident-owned mortgage bonds, or participations in mortgage bonds. “Scrip” and “share certificates” include any temporary or substitute documents of title, such as letters of allotment, option certificates, balance receipts, and any other receipts for scrip.

    Domestic entrepreneurs are generally given approval for borrowing abroad with a maturity of at least six months, except for speculation or consumer credit. Authorized dealers are generally permitted to raise funds abroad in their own names to finance South African foreign trade and for other approved purposes.

    Subject, however, to the 1994 Debt Arrangements, where applicable.

    Effective August 2, 1993, the intervention thresholds of the currencies participating in the ERM of the EMS, except those of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder, were widened from ±2.25 percent (in the case of Portugal and Spain, 6 percent) to ±15 percent around the bilateral central exchange rates; the fluctuation band of the deutsche mark and the Netherlands guilder remained unchanged at ±2.25 percent.

    Effective intervention rates may vary within the limits of these maximum intervention rates, depending on daily fluctuations in the cross rates between currencies.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, ECUs, Finnish markkaa, French francs, Greek drachmas, Irish pounds, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and U.S. dollars.

    African, Caribbean, and Pacific state signatories to the Lomè-Convention with the EU.

    Australian dollars, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, French francs, Hong Kong dollars, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and U.S. dollars.

    In Australian dollars, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, Swedish kronor, deutsche mark, French francs, Japanese yen, pounds sterling, Singapore dollars, Swiss francs, and U.S. dollars.

    These include wheat, guns, and explosives, as well as certain chemicals and petroleum products.

    Deutsche mark, French francs, Hong Kong dollars, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, pounds sterling, Singapore dollars, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and U.S. dollars.

    Effective January 10, 1994, the licensing requirement was abolished except for timber, coral shanks and shells, ivory and ivory products, and old vehicles (manufactured before 1945).

    The Sudanese pound (LSd) also circulates and has a fixed relationship to the Sudanese dinar (Sd) of LSd 10 = Sd 1.

    Commercial banks must obtain prior approval from the Bank of Sudan before opening any new accounts for public bodies.

    These organizations are the Arab Agricultural Investment and Development Corporation and the companies belonging to it, Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa, Arab Authority for Investment and Agricultural Development, Arab Sugar Association, Khartoum International Institute for Arabic Language, Arab Center for Social Security, international organizations, embassies, and foreign companies.

    With the authorization of the Ministry of Trade, clothing factories are permitted to import textiles, and hotels and the Duty-Free Corporation are permitted to import some of the goods on the negative import list.

    These goods include agricultural equipment, such as tractors and harvesters; all means of transportation, excluding sedans; mining equipment; all kinds of industrial and service equipment; and road, irrigation, building, and construction equipment.

    On July 26, 1993, reptile skins were exempted until January 16, 1994 from the prohibition on exports of hides and skins.

    However, two specified mining companies do not need licenses for their own import requirements. Similar exemptions may be granted to foreign companies for their industrial activities in Suriname, provided that they pay for imports from their own foreign exchange holdings.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Barbados dollars, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, Eastern Caribbean dollars, French francs, Guyana dollars, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, Trinidad and Tobago dollars, and U.S. dollars.

    The prohibition applies to imports of pigs (excluding those for breeding); chicken, duck, turkey meat, pork, fish (excluding kwie kwie fish and smoked herring), shrimp, and crab (fresh, cooled, or frozen, salted, dried, or precooked); vegetables (excluding potatoes, onions, and garlic); edible roots and tubers; citrus, bananas, plantains, and coconuts; green and roasted coffee (excluding decaffeinated); rice and rice products (excluding baby food); sugar (excluding cubes and tablets weighing 5 grams or less a cube or tablet), aromatized or colored sugar or sugar syrup; noodles and macaroni; jam, jelly, and marmalade (excluding those for diabetics); peanut butter; syrups and concentrates for nonalcoholic beverages in packages of less than 5 kilograms (excluding those for diabetics); firewood and other nonprocessed wood, railroad ties, shingles, wooden structures for construction, wooden tiles and panels, wooden tools, handles, and coat hangers; men’s and boys#x2019; shoes (excluding rubber and plastic boots and sport shoes); and sand, gravel, sidewalk tiles, and road bricks. Imports of some other items, such as explosives and narcotics, are prohibited for reasons of public policy or health.

    The commodities to which import quotas are applied include kwie kwie fish, milk powder, potatoes, onions, garlic, fruits and nuts (other than citrus, bananas, plantains, and coconuts), decaffeinated coffee, peanuts, baby food, tomato paste, certain preserved vegetables, matches, furnishings, ready-made clothing, and furniture (excluding those for business establishments, such as offices, theaters, clinics, hotels, restaurants, and libraries).

    Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, United Kingdom, and United States.

    This arrangement applies to the nationally controlled Land-bouw Bank, De Surinaamsche Bank, and Hakrinbank, but not to the Dutch-owned Algemene Bank Nederland.

    Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, French francs, Iraqi dinars, Italian lire, Jordan dinars, Lebanese pounds, Netherlands guilders, pounds sterling, Saudi Arabian rivals, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    Mixed-sector enterprises are enterprises with at least 25 percent public participation.

    The Republic of Tajikistan became a member of the IMF on April 27, 1993.

    Since January 8, 1994, the post-1993 Russian rubles are the cash in circulation, and Tajik rubles are the noncash in circulation.

    Tajikistan maintains bilateral trade agreements with all of the states of the former U.S.S.R.

    The interbank market for foreign exchange replaced the foreign exchange auction system on June 20, 1994.

    Australian dollars, Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Comorian francs, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, Netherlands guilders, Ethiopian birr, French francs, Indian rupees, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Kenya shillings, Lesotho maloti, Malawian kwacha, Mozambican meticais, Mauritian rupees, Norwegian kroner, Pakistan rupees, pounds sterling, Rwanda francs, Somali shillings, Swaziland emalangeni, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, Uganda shillings, Zambian kwacha, and Zimbabwe dollars.

    The surrender requirement on traditional exports excluding coffee was abolished in June, 1994.

    These include sorghum, rice, canned tuna, all types of sugar, and certain types of coal, charcoal, and textile products.

    The CFA franc is issued by the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) and is the common currency in Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.

    Transfers between member countries of the union are free of commission.

    Including investments made through foreign companies directly or indirectly controlled by persons in Togo and those made by branches or subsidiaries abroad of companies in Togo.

    Including those made by companies in Togo directly or indirectly under foreign control and those made by branches or subsidiaries in Togo of foreign companies.

    Canadian dollars, deutsche mark, Fiji dollars, French francs, Hong Kong dollars, Indian rupees, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, New Zealand dollars, pounds sterling, Singapore dollars, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and U.S.dollars.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Myanmar kyats, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and pounds sterling.

    The Caricom countries are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

    In October 1992, the heads of government of the Caricomcountries agreed to a phased reduction of the common external tariff (CET) rates. Beginning January 1, 1993, the Trinidad and Tobago authorities accordingly adopted a new schedule of rates ranging from 5 percent to 35 percent.

    The related schedules of surcharges and stamp duties were reduced to the range of 10—25 percent and 10—20 percent, respectively, effective January 1, 1993.

    Previously exempt imported raw materials and intermediate inputs became subject to a tariff of 5 percent, effective January 1, 1993. In conjunction with this measure, the issuance of duty-free licenses granted to local concessionaire manufacturers has been discontinued. Exporters providing documentation on import duties paid on raw materials and on their exports may obtain a rebate.

    Currencies quoted spot and at bank note rates are Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, European currency units (ECUs), Finnish markkaa, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Kuwaiti dinars, Libyan dinars, Moroccan dirhams, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, pounds sterling, Saudi Arabian riyals, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, U.A.E. dirhams, and U.S. dollars. Luxembourg francs, Qatar riyals, and CFA francs are quoted at bank note rates only; Algerian dinars are quoted spot only.

    Such persons may transfer D 1,750 if the total value of their assets does not exceed D 3,500.

    The national currency, the manat, was introduced on November 1, 1993, at the conversion rate of manat 1 to Russian ruble 500, and the official exchange rate was set at manat 2 per US$1.

    If the amount of investment is more than $500,000, the consent of the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan is required.

    At the end of 1993, Ukraine maintained bilateral trade and payments agreements with Bulgaria, Hungary, the Islamic Republic of Iran, and Mongolia.

    A license fee of 0.1 percent of the total amount exported or imported is levied on all exporters and importers.

    These include meat, milk and dairy products, food grains, fats, sugar, machinery and equipment, and ferrous metals used for metal construction. Import quotas are to be allocated through auctions. Imports under intergovernmental agreement, imports of goods that constitute investment in enterprises established with foreign capital investments, imports by customs license stores, and imports funded from the Reserve Fund of the Cabinet of Ministers are not subject to the new import quota system.

    These include pig iron, ferro-silicon, potassium chloride, silicon carbide, artificial corundum, and urea.

    The State Program for Attraction of Foreign Investment of December 17, 1993 came into force on March 1, 1994. The program provides foreign investors with investment incentives on tax, insurance, credit, and depreciation for 32 branches of the Ukrainian economy.

    The seven federated states of the United Arab Emirates are Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al Qaiwain, Ras al Khaimah, and Fujairah.

    The United Kingdom suspended intervention obligations with respect to the exchange rate and intervention mechanism of the European Monetary System (EMS) on September 16, 1992.

    The ACP Area comprises Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Comoros, the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, the Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zaïre, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

    The CEFTA Area comprises Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

    The EUArea comprises all EU member states.

    The Dollar Area comprises Bolivia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Liberia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, the Philippines, the United States, and Venezuela.

    The Far Eastern and Western Area comprises Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States.

    The Mediterranean Area comprises Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Tunisia, and Turkey.

    The OCT Area comprises British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Falkland Islands and Dependencies, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Territories, Greenland, Mayotte, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles (Aruba, Bonaire, Curasao, St. Eustatius, St. Maarten (South), and Saba), New Caledonia and Dependencies, Pitcairn, St. Helena and Dependencies, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Turks and Caicos Islands, Wallis and Futuna Islands, and West Indies Associated States.

    The State Trading Area comprises Albania, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, the Czech Republic, Hungary, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, the states of the former U.S.S.R., and Viet Nam.

    The Residual Textile Area comprises all countries and territories other than Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei Darussalem, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, the Republic of Korea, Macao, Malaysia, Maldives, Mexico, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, the Syrian Arab Republic, Taiwan Province of China, Thailand, Uruguay; and those comprising the ACP Area, the CEFTA Area, the Far Eastern and Western Area, the Mediterranean Area, the OCT Area, and the State Trading Area.

    The restrictions on textiles do not apply to countries in the Community Area, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States.

    The skins of certain rare animals, most primary whale products, and a number of other wildlife products, including raw ivory, tortoiseshell, and plumage, cannot be imported without an import license issued by the appropriate department. Cocoa and cocoa products may be imported according to the International Cocoa Agreement of 1986.

    Exports of certain products are controlled for reasons of national security, animal welfare, or national heritage and in accordance with international agreements.

    It expired on July 4, 1993, but on August 11, Congress extended the GSP until September 30, 1999 and removed the states of the former Soviet Union from the list of countries that were banned as GSP beneficiaries.

    Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, and Yemen Arab Republic.

    Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

    Certain payments and transfers to the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, its instrumentalities, and controlled entities involving obligations contracted before January 19, 1981 are subject to restrictions, as are payments for goods or services imported from the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    These are defined as domestically chartered corporations authorized to engage in international banking and financial operations.

    The Uruguayan peso replaced the new Uruguayan peso at the ratio of 1,000 to 1 on March 1, 1993.

    Sum-coupons, introduced on November 15, 1993, initially circulated in parallel and at par with the pre-1993 Russian ruble.

    Uzbekistan maintains bilateral payments agreements with Armenia, Belarus, China, Estonia, India, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine.

    The negative list includes weapons, drugs, poisons, nuclear materials, and certain printed materials.

    Including coconut crabs for conservation purposes.

    An annual participation fee of $200 is levied in dong; in addition, a commission of 0.01 percent is payable on each transaction in dong by purchasers of foreign exchange, with a maximum of $100. The trading floor has a management board, composed of four state bank employees and three commercial bank employees; a representative of the SBVN serves as the chairman.

    In 1991, the following banks were also authorized to carry out international transactions: Bank for Industry and Commerce in Saigon and Ho Chi Minh City, Export/Import Bank, Marine Bank, and Agricultural Bank.

    The dinar of the former People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (YD) is also circulating as legal tender at the rate of YRls 26 per YD 1 but is gradually being withdrawn from circulation.

    Deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Jordan dinars, Kuwaiti dinars, Lebanese pounds, Netherlands guilders, pounds sterling, Saudi Arabian riyals, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    The new zaïre was introduced on October 22, 1993 at the conversion rate of NZ 1 to 3 million old zaïres.

    Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, European currency units, Burundi francs, Canadian dollars, CFA francs, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Kenya shillings, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, Rwanda francs, SDRs, South African rand, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, and Swiss francs.

    Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, and Sao Tome and Principe.

    The negative list includes gold, silver, platinum, jewelry, weapons and ammunition, alcoholic beverages, tobacco, televisions, radios, videocassette recorders and camcorders, and passenger automobiles.

    There are 17 denominated currencies that are freely convertible through authorized dealers: Austrian schillings, Belgian francs, Canadian dollars, Danish kroner, deutsche mark, French francs, Italian lire, Japanese yen, Netherlands guilders, Norwegian kroner, Portuguese escudos, pounds sterling, South African rand, Spanish pesetas, Swedish kronor, Swiss francs, and U.S. dollars.

    Source: Offecial Journals of the European Union.

    Summary Features of Exchange and Trade Systems in Member Countries1

    (as of date shown on first country page)2

    Afghanistan, Islamic State ofAlbaniaAlgeriaAngolaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamas, TheBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgium and LuxembourgBelizeBeninBhutanBoliviaBotswanaBrazilBulgariaBurkina Faso
    A. Acceptance of Article Status
    1. Article VIII status
    2. Article XIV status
    B. Exchange Arrangement3
    1. Exchange rate determined on the basis of:
    (a) A peg to:
    (i) the U.S. dollar
    (ii) the pound sterling
    (iii) the French franc
    (iv) other currencies4
    (v) a composite of currencies
    (b) Limited flexibility with respect to:
    (i) single currency
    (ii) cooperative arrangement
    (c) More flexible arrangements:
    (i) adjusted according to a set of indicators
    (ii) other managed floating
    (iii) independently floating
    2. Separate exchange rate(s) for some or all capital transactions and/or some or all invisibles
    3. More than one rate for imports
    4. More than one rate for exports
    5. Import rate(s) different from export rate(s)
    C. Payments Arrears
    D. Bilateral Payments Arrangements
    1. With members
    2. With nonmembers
    E. Payments Restrictions
    1. Restrictions on payments for current transactions5
    2. Restrictions on payments for capital transactions5, 6
    F. Cost-Related Import Restrictions
    1. Import surcharges
    2. Advance import deposits
    G. Surrender or Repatriation Requirement for Export Proceeds
    BurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCentral African Rep.ChadChileChinaColombiaComorosCongoCosta RicaCôte d’IvoireCroatiaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEstoniaEthiopiaFijiFinlandFranceGabonGambia, TheGeorgiaGermanyGhana
    GreeceGrenadaGuatemalaGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Rep. ofIraqIrelandIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea
    A. Acceptance of Article Status
    1. Article VIII status
    2. Article XIV status
    B. Exchange Arrangement3
    1. Exchange rate determined on the basis of:
    (a) A peg to:
    (i) the U.S. dollar
    (ii) the pound sterling
    (iii) the French franc
    (iv) other currencies4
    (v) a composite of currencies
    (b) Limited flexibility with respect to:
    (i) single currency
    (ii) cooperative arrangement
    (c) More flexible arrangements:
    (i) adjusted according to a set of indicators
    (ii) other managed floating
    (iii) independently floating
    2. Separate exchange rate(s) for some or all capital transactions and/or some or all invisibles
    3. More than one rate for imports
    4. More than one rate for exports
    5. Import rate(s) different from export rate(s)
    C. Payments Arrears
    D. Bilateral Payments Arrangements
    1. With members
    2. With nonmembers
    E. Payments Restrictions
    1. Restrictions on payments for current transactions5
    2. Restrictions on payments for capital transactions5, 6
    F. Cost-Related Import Restrictions
    1. Import surcharges
    2. Advance import deposits
    G. Surrender or Repatriation Requirement for Export Proceeds
    KuwaitKyrgyz RepublicLao People’s Dem. Rep.LatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLithuaniaMacedonia, former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMarshall IslandsMauritaniaMauritiusMexicoMicronesia, Fed. States ofMoldovaMongoliaMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNepalNetherlandsNetherlands AntillesNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeria


    NorwayOmanPakistanPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPolandPortugalQatarRomaniaRussian FederationRwandaSt. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and GrenadinesSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSlovak Republic
    A. Acceptance of Article Status
    1. Article VIII status
    2. Article XIV status
    B. Exchange Arrangement3
    1. Exchange rate determined on the basis of:
    (a) A peg to:
    (i) the U.S. dollar
    (ii) the pound sterling
    (iii) the French franc
    (iv) other currencies4
    (v) a composite of currencies
    (b) Limited flexibility with respect to:
    (i) single currency
    (ii) cooperative arrangement
    (c) More flexible arrangements:
    (i) adjusted according to a set of indicators
    (ii) other managed floating
    (iii) independently floating
    2. Separate exchange rate(s) for some or all capital transactions and/or some or all invisibles
    3. More than one rate for imports
    4. More than one rate for exports
    5. Import rate(s) different from export rate(s)
    C. Payments Arrears
    D. Bilateral Payments Arrangements
    1. With members
    2. With nonmembers
    E. Payments Restrictions
    1. Restrictions on payments for current transactions5
    2. Restrictions on payments for capital transactions5, 6
    F. Cost-Related Import Restrictions
    1. Import surcharges
    2. Advance import deposits
    G. Surrender or Repatriation Requirement for Export Proceeds
    SloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTajikistanTanzaniaThailandTogoTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuelaViet NamWestern SamoaRepublic of YemenZaïreZambiaZimbabwe
    Key and Footnotes

    indicates that the specified practice is a feature of the exchange and trade system.

    indicates that the specified practice is not a feature of the system.

    indicates that the composite is the SDR.

    The listing includes the nonmetropolitan territory of Hong Kong, for which the United Kingdom has accepted the Fund’s Articles of Agreement, and Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles, for which the Kingdom of the Netherlands has accepted the Fund’s Articles of Agreement. Exchange practices indicated in individual countries do not necessarily apply to all external transactions.

    Usually December 31, 1993.

    It should be noted that existence of a separate rate does not necessarily imply a multiple currency practice under Fund jurisdiction. Exchange arrangements involving transactions at a unitary rate with one group of countries and at another unitary rate with a second group of countries are considered, from the viewpoint of the overall economy, to involve two separate rates for similar transactions.

    Australian dollar, deutsche mark, Indian rupee, Italian lira, South African rand, or Russian ruble.

    Restrictions (i.e., official actions directly affecting the availability or cost of exchange, or involving undue delay) on payments to member countries, other than restrictions evidenced by external payments arrears and restrictions imposed for security reasons under Executive Board Decision No. 144-(52/51) adopted August 14, 1952.

    Resident-owned funds.

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS*

    ACP-EU

    African, Caribbean, and Pacific State signatories to the Lomé Convention

    ACU

    Asian Clearing Union

    AFTA

    ASEAN Free Trade Area (see ASEAN, below)

    AMU

    Asian Monetary Unit

    Anzcerta

    Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations and Trade Agreement

    ASEAN

    Association of South East Asian Nations

    BCEAO

    Central Bank of West African States (Banque centrale des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest)

    BEAC

    Bank of Central African States (Banque des Etats de l’Afrique Centrale)

    BLEU

    Belgian-Luxembourg Economic Union

    CACM

    Central American Common Market

    CAP

    Common Agricultural Policy (of the EU)

    Caricom

    Caribbean Common Market

    CCCN

    Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature

    CEEAC

    Economic Community of Central African States

    CEFTA

    Central European Free Trade Area

    CEPGL

    Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries

    CET

    Common External Tariff (of Caricom)

    CMA

    Common Monetary Area

    CMEA

    Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

    Cocom

    Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls

    ECCB

    Eastern Caribbean Central Bank

    ECLAG

    Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

    Ecowas

    Economic Community of West African States (Cedeao)

    ECSC

    European Coal and Steel Community

    ECU

    European Currency Unit

    EFTA

    European Free Trade Association

    EMS

    European Monetary System

    EPZ

    Export processing zone

    ERM

    Exchange rate mechanism (of the EMS)

    EU

    European Union (formerly European Community)

    Euratom

    European Atomic Energy Community

    GATT

    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

    GCC

    Gulf Cooperation Council (Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf)

    GSP

    Generalized System of Preferences

    ICO

    International Coffee Organization

    LAIA

    Latin American Integration Association

    LIBOR

    London interbank offered rate

    Mercosur

    Southern Cone Common Market

    MFA

    Multifiber Arrangement

    MFN

    Most favored nation

    MTN

    Multilateral Trade Negotiations (the Uruguay Round)

    NAFTA

    North American Free Trade Agreement

    NATO

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization

    OECD

    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

    OECS

    Organization of Eastern Caribbean States

    OGL

    Open general license

    PTA

    Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern African States

    SACU

    South African Customs Union

    Sparteca

    South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement

    UAPTA

    Unit of account of the PTA

    UDEAC

    Central African Customs and Economic Union

    WAEC

    West African Economic Community (CEAO)

    WAMU

    West African Monetary Union

    This list does not include abbreviations of purely national institutions mentioned in the country pages.

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