Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
September 1979
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    Index

    An asterisk (*) denotes a table; a dagger (†) denotes a chart; fn. denotes a footnote.

    • Abu Dhabi

      • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • Afghanistan

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Africa

      • Balance of payments, 16*, 27

      • Economic activity, 10

      • International reserves, 23-24, 57*

      • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

      • Output, 11*

      • Prices, 11*

      • Trade, 27

    • Algeria

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Argentina

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • International reserves, 48*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75, 110*

      • Trade, 26 (fn.)

    • Articles of Agreement

      • Article IV, 33, 40, 44, 45, 63, 87

      • Article V, 76

      • Article VIII, 55, 64; members accepting obligations of, 64-65, 116*

      • Article XIV, 63-64

      • Article XVIII, 65

      • Article XXII, 55

      • Second Amendment, 60, 63, 65, 69

    • Asia

      • Balance of payments, 16*, 27

      • Economic activity, 10

      • International reserves, 23-24, 57*

      • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

      • Output, 11*

      • Prices, 11*

      • Trade, 27

    • Australia

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Economic activity and policies, 12

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Quota increase, 116*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Austria

      • Balance of payments, 20

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Exchange rate, 18, 98*

      • International reserves, 48*, 57*

      • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 74, 78

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

      • Trade, 20

    • Bahamas

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Bahrain

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Balance of Payments

      • Adjustment, 2, 12, 17, 23, 29, 31, 32, 33, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 52-53, 54-55; gradual approach to, 7, 30;

      • key policy issues, 29-32

      • Current account balances: distribution of, 19-20; for 1973-79, 15*

      • Domestic economic policies, effect on,33

      • Effect of: countries’ demand management policies on, 39, 43; domestic economic policies on, 44; exchange arrangements on, 42, 45; exchange rate variability on, 19, 39; export growth on, 43; import substitution on, 43; oil price increases on, 24

      • Exchange rate changes, effect on, 38

      • Financing, 1, 23, 24, 29, 31, 49, 52-53

      • Global pattern, 13-15

      • Global summary, 1975-78, 16*

      • See aglso individual countries

    • Bangladesh

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 104*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Bank for International Settlements

      • (BIS), 87; holder of SDRs, 67

    • Barbados

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Belgium

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Exchange rate, 18, 98*

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

      • International reserves, 48*, 57*

      • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Benin

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Board of Governors

      • Committee on Reform of the International Monetary System and Related Issues (Committee of Twenty), 56

      • Interim Committee on the International Monetary System (Interim Committee), 60, 61-62, 65, 67, 80, 86; communiqués, 140-45

      • Joint Ministerial Committee of the Bank and the Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries (Development Committee), 61,74, 140 (fn.)

      • Resolutions on: allocations of SDRs, 60; Seventh General Review, 54; Sixth General Review, 61

    • Bolivia

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 62

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Botswana

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 62

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Brazil

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • International reserves, 48*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

      • Trade, 26 (fn.)

    • Budget of Fund, 153

    • Buffer Stock Financing by Fund, 54, 61,71†, 72, 74, 108*

    • Burma

      • Balance of payments, 43

      • Economic policies, 43

      • Exchange rate, 43, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Burundi

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Cameroon

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Canada

      • Balance of payments, 17†, 20, 21*

      • Capital flows, 22

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Economic activity, 5†, 6, 7, 8†, 9, 18, 19†, 37

      • Exchange rate, 17, 18, 34, 35†, 36†, 37, 98*

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

      • International reserves, 22, 57*

      • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • Output, 3*

      • Prices 3*

      • SDRs,’68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Cape Verde

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Membership in Fund, 90, 116* (fn.)

      • Quota established, 90

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Capital Markets, 22, 25, 29, 37, 52-53, 71; borrowing in, 23, 24, 29, 31

    • Central African Empire

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Chad

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Chile

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 70, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70, 102*, 104*

    • China, Republic of

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Proposed gold distribution from Fund, 81 (fn.)

      • Quota increase, exception to proposal, 61

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

      • Trade, 26 (fn.)

    • Colombia

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Committee of Twenty

      • See Board of Governors

    • Comoros

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Compensatory Financing by Fund, 54, 71†, 72, 74, 108*

    • Conditionality on Use of fund Resources,31, 55, 62, 136-38

    • Congo, People’s Republic of the

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Consultations with Fund Members,63, 64

    • Costa Rica

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Cyprus

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Denmark

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85*

      • Exchange rate, 18, 98*

      • International reserves, 48*, 57*

      • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

      • Quota increase, 62

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Developing Countries

      • See Primary Producing Countries

    • Development Committee

      • See Board of Governors

    • Djibouti

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Membership in Fund, 90, 116* (fn.)

      • Quota established, 90

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Dominica

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Membership in Fund, 90, 116* (fn.)

      • Quota established, 90

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Dominican Republic

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Economic Uncertainty, Pervasiveness of, 29-32

    • Ecuador

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 62

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Egypt

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • El Salvador

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 62

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Equatorial Guinea

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 116*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Ethiopia

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Euromarkets

      • Discussion of possible measures to control growth of, 53

      • Eurocurrency deposits, 22, 53

      • Group of Ten agreement of 1971, 53

      • Growth of, 52–53

      • Official borrowing in, 53

      • Official holdings of Eurocurrencies, 51, 52*, 53, 58*, 59*

      • Use in increasing official reserves, 53

    • Europe

      • Economic activity, 1

      • Output, 3*, 11*

      • Prices, 3*, 11*

    • European Community (EC), 40

    • European Currency Unit (ECU), 40, 46

    • European Monetary System (EMS)

      • Establishment, 18, 37, 40

      • Exchange rates, 18

      • Foreign exchange holdings of participants, 46

      • Participants, 47*, 101*

    • Exchange Markets

      • Comparison with other financial markets 37

      • Conditions in, 1–2, 17–18, 20, 30, 31, 33, 34

      • Effect of speculative capital flows on, 17, 20

      • Forward markets, 20, 37, 42

      • Official intervention, 17, 30, 33, 40, 45–46, 49, 51

    • Exchange Rates

      • Arrangements, 33, 34, 41, 42, 55, 64

      • Attitudes toward flexibility, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40, 43

      • Balance of payments, effect on, 14–15

      • Effect of: balance of payments on, 15, 17, 34, 37; capacity utilization on, 34, 37; geographic concentration of trade on, 41; inflation rate on, 43; underlying economic and financial conditions on, 34, 37, 40

      • Effective rates, 17, 20, 30, 34, 36t, 41, 42; for major industrial countries, 17†

      • European common margins arrangement (“snake”), 18, 40

      • European Monetary System (EMS), 18, 37, 40, 101* (fn.)

      • Expectations, 20, 37, 40, 51–52

      • List as of June 30, 1979, 98*–101*

      • Policies, 40, 43, 44, 45–46, 64

      • Relative costs and prices, effect on, 38

      • Role in international adjustment process, 33, 38, 39

      • Terms of trade, effect on, 17

      • Uncertainty, 37

      • Variability, 33, 34, 35t, 37, 39, 41, 42, 44, 45–46, 51†, 55

      • Variables related to exchange rate changes, 38*

      • See also individual countries

    • Exchange Restrictions, 21, 43, 44, 45

    • Executive Board

      • Agreement on terms and conditions of gold sales, 60

      • Approval of stand-by arrangements, 63

      • Changes in membership, 149–52

      • Establishment of supplemental surveillance procedure, 64

      • Extension of period of consent to quotas, 61

      • Forthcoming review of supplementary financing facility, 75

      • Guidelines for use of Fund resources, 60, 62

      • List of Executive Directors and voting power, 146–48

      • Proposals for quota increases under Seventh General Review, 61

      • Review and adjustment of terms and conditions for gold auctions by Fund, 79, 80

      • Review of compensatory financing facility, 74

      • Review of extended Fund facility, 74

      • Review of early repurchase guidelines, 75

      • Review of method of calculating quotas, 62

      • Review of principles and procedures of designation in transfer of SDRs, 69

      • Review of rule on setting SDR interest rate, 82

      • Review of SDR’s role in General Resources Account, 76

      • Review of surveillance procedures, 64

      • Review of technical assistance services, 87

      • Review of world economic outlook, 64

      • Role in Article IV consultations, 64

      • Special surveillance of United States, 64

      • Work on new uses for SDR, 67

      • Work on substitution account, 60

    • Executive Board Decisions

      • Conditionality guidelines, 136–38

      • Definition of freely usable currencies, 69

      • Early repurchase guidelines, 138–39

      • Halving of SDR reconstitution obligation, 56

      • Interest rate on SDRs, rate of remuneration, and rates of periodic charges, 128–29

      • Meaning of “net creditor position in Fund,” 136

      • Permission granted for transfer of repayment claims under General Arrangements to Borrow, 78

      • Repurchase requirements for members, 81

      • Review of Decision on Trust Fund investment diversification, 87

      • Seventh General Review of Quotas, 118–23

      • SDRs: additional uses of, 56, 130–34; allocation for third basic period, 66, 123–28; allocation to new participants, 129; interest rate increased, 56; reconstitution, 67, 129–30

      • Subsidy Account, rate of subsidy, 85

      • Surveillance procedures, 136

      • Suspension of Democratic Kampuchea’s right to use SDRs, 71 (fn.)

      • Transferability of claims under oil facility, 135

      • Trust Fund, 86, 87, 134

    • Extended Fund Facility, 54, 63, 72, 73, 75, 108*, 112*, 113*; use with supplementary financing facility, 55, 74

    • Fiji

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 104*

    • Financial Markets

      • See Capital Marketsand Exchange Markets

    • Financial Programs Agreed with Fund, 63

    • Financial Statements of Fund, 155–77

    • Finland

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Economic activity and policies, 12

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75

    • Foreign Exchange Markets

      • See Exchange Markets

    • Foreign Exchange Reserves

      • See International Reserves

    • Foreign Investment

      • See International Investment

    • Foreign Trade

      • See International Trade

    • France

      • Balance of payments, 17†, 20, 21*

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Economic activity, 5†, 6†, 8†, 9†, 19†, 82†

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 17, 19, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*,98*

      • Foreign exchange holdings, 49

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

      • International reserves, 48*, 57*

      • Official French franc claims on, 58*, 59*

      • Output, 3*

      • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

      • Prices, 3*

      • Purchases from Fund, 77

      • SDRs, 69, 70*, 102*, 104*

      • Trade, 20

    • Gabon

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

    • Gambia, The

      • Exchange rate, 98*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

    • General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB), 71, 72*, 76, 77, 83, 111

    • General Resources Account Transactions

      • Borrowing by Fund, 61, 72*, 77, 84*

      • Charges, 81–82, 83, 84*, 113*; payment in SDRs, 68*, 69

      • Gold sales: in auctions, 80

      • Holdings of: gold, 72*; members’ currencies, 83; SDRs, 68*, 69, 70, 71, 72*, 76, 83, 84*, 103*; usable currencies, 72*, 76, 77

      • Inclusion of SDRs and currencies in operational budget, 76

      • Operations and transactions with participants, 69

      • Purchases by members, 61, 68*, 69, 71, 72*, 73, 83

      • Quota payments by members, 68*

      • Receipt of SDRs, 103*, 104*–106*

      • Remuneration paid to members, 68*, 82, 83, 84*

      • Repurchases by members, 61, 68*, 69, 71, 72*, 75, 83, 138–39

      • SDR as unit of account, 67

      • Use of currencies, 69

      • Use of SDRs, 69, 103*, 104*–106*

    • Germany, Federal Republic of

      • Balance of payments, 15, 17†, 19, 20, 21*,38*

      • Capital flows, 20

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Economic activity and policies, 3–4, 5†, 6, 8†, 9†, 17–18, 19t, 40, 46, 82†

      • Exchange rate, 17, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*, 38*, 99*

      • Foreign exchange holdings, 49

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

      • International reserves, 18, 20, 46, 48*, 57*

      • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

      • Official deutsche mark claims on, 58*, 59*

      • Output, 3*

      • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

      • Prices, 3*

      • Role of deutsche mark as reserve currency, 55

      • SDRs, 68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*

      • Trade, 19

    • Ghana

      • Economic policies, 43

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 43, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Gold

      • ECUs issued in exchange for, 46

      • Holdings, 46, 47, 48, 58*

      • Price, 46, 48

      • Sales by Fund: distribution of profits, 71–72, 79, 87, 114*; for distribution, 46, 60, 72, 78–79, 80; in auctions, 60, 72*,78–80

    • Greece

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85*

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Grenada

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 86

    • Group of Ten, 53, 78

    • Guatemala

      • Eligibility for Trust Fund assistance, 86

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 74, 78 SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Guinea

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Guinea-Bissau

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Guyana

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

    • Haiti

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73–74, 112*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Honduras

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Hong Kong

      • Trade, 26 (fn.)

    • Iceland

      • Economic activity, 12

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Quota increase, 62

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Income and Expenses of Fund, 61, 83, 84*, 154*

    • India

      • Balance of payments, 43

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 43, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 76, 109*

      • SDRs, 69, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75

      • Trade, 26 (fn.)

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Indonesia

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 62

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Industrial Countries

      • Balance of payments, 1, 2, 13, 14, 15–29, 31, 51

      • Capital flows, 22, 31

      • Consumer prices, 5†

      • Cyclical economic developments, 14–15

      • Domestic demand, 4†

      • Economic activity and policies, 1, 3–5, 6, 7, 9–10, 12, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26–27, 30,31,40, 45

      • Eurocurrency deposits, 22

      • Exchange rates, 1, 13, 14, 15, 17–19, 21,30, 31,34, 41*, 42*

      • Fiscal balances, 8†

      • Foreign exchange holdings, 46, 52

      • Gross national product, 6†

      • Interest rates, 9†, 82†

      • International banking regulation, 54

      • International reserves, 21, 47, 57*

      • Lending for oil facility, 54

      • Manufactured goods, 39

      • Monetary expansion, 8†

      • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

      • Output, 3*, 4†

      • Prices, 3*

      • Purchases and repurchases from Fund, 71

      • Receipts from third gold distribution, 71

      • Relative prices of manufactures, 19†

      • Trade, 12, 13, 15*, 19, 28

      • See also individual countries

    • Interim Committee

      • See Board of Governors

    • International Adjustment Process, 1, 2, 12, 15, 20, 21, 31–32, 45, 53, 55, 63; role of Fund, 54, 55; speed of, 33, 38

    • International Investment

      • Direct investment, 39

      • Effect of: exchange rate changes on, 39; exchange rate uncertainty on, 37; international disparities in interest rates on, 39; relative costs on, 39

      • Primary producing countries, 41

      • Uncertainties and risks of, 21

    • International Organizations

      • Fund relations with, 88–90

    • International Reserves

      • Adequacy, 33, 45–46, 49, 51, 52–53, 54, 55, 65

      • Borrowed from capital markets, 22, 23, 24, 29,31,45, 65

      • Changes in countries’ holdings of, 48*

      • Changes in 1978, 46

      • Composition, 45, 46, 52–53, 55, 56, 65

      • Composition of reserve change, 58*

      • Distribution, 22, 23, 45–46, 52–53, 57*

      • Foreign exchange holdings, 22, 45–46, 47–48, 49, 50t, 51, 52*, 55, 58*, 59*

      • Global stock, 52–53

      • Gold holdings, 46, 47, 48, 58*

      • Growth, 33, 47–48, 51

      • Management by monetary authorities, 55

      • Official holdings, 46, 50†, 51†

      • Relative value of reserve assets, 55

      • Reserve positions in Fund, 46, 47–48, 58*

      • SDRs, 47*, 55, 58*, 65

      • Use in exchange rate intervention, 18, 33

      • See also individual countries

    • International Sugar Agreement (1977), 61,72, 74

    • International Trade

      • Competitive positions of countries, 19

      • Effect of: exchange rate variability on, 37, 39, 41, 42, 44–45; international investment on, 39; relative price changes on, 39, 44–45

      • Export promotion, 43

      • Growth, 23

      • Import demand, 14

      • Import substitution, 43

      • Inflation of trade prices, 12

      • Manufactured goods, 39

      • Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN), 27

      • Prices of oil and manufactures, 141

      • Protectionism, 9, 26–27

      • Restrictions, 42, 43

      • Subsidies, 43

      • Summary, 1962–78, 13*

      • Terms of trade, 12, 14, 15*, 19, 20, 23, 28, 29

      • Trade prices, 15*, 23

      • Unit value, 13*

      • Value, 12

      • Volume, 12, 13*, 19

      • World imports, value of, 48

      • World trade model, 39

    • Iran

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85*

      • Economic activity, 11, 28

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Trade, 28

    • Iraq

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 116*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Ireland

      • Economic activity and policies, 12

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Israel

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 70, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70, 102*, 105*

      • Trade, 26 (fn.)

    • Italy

      • Balance of payments, 4, 15, 17†, 20, 21*

      • Charges paid to Fund, 70

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Economic activity, 4, 5, 6†, 8†, 9†, 19†

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 17, 18–19, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*, 99*

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

      • International reserves, 48*, 57*

      • Output, 3*

      • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

      • Prices, 3*

      • Purchases and repurchases from Fund, 70, 71, 73, 75, 77, 78, 109*

      • SDRs, 69, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 72, 75, 77, 110*

      • Trade, 4, 20

    • Ivory Coast

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Jamaica

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

    • Japan

      • Balance of payments, 4, 15, 17t, 19, 21, 38*

      • Capital flows, 20–21

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Economic activity and policies, 1, 3–4, 5†, 6†, 7, 8†, 9†, 17–18, 19†, 20, 40, 46, 82†

      • Exchange rate, 17, 19, 20, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*, 38*, 99*

      • Foreign exchange holdings, 49

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

      • International reserves, 18, 20–21, 46, 48*, 57*

      • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

      • Output, 3*

      • Prices, 3*

      • Remuneration paid by Fund, 71

      • SDRs, 68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Trade, 4, 19

    • Jordan

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 116*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Kampuchea, Democratic

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Proposed gold distribution from Fund, 81 (fn.)

      • Proposed quota increase, 61, 90, 116* (fn.); exception to proposal, 61–62

      • SDRs, 71 (fn.), 102*, 105*, 106*

      • Suspension of right to use SDRs, 71 (fn.)

    • Kenya

      • Balance of payments, 43

      • Exchange rate, 43, 99*

      • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Korea

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75, 110*

      • Trade, 26 (fn.)

    • Kuwait

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • Lao People’s Democratic Republic

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Latin America and Caribbean

      • Balance of payments, 16*, 27

      • Economic activity, 10

      • International reserves, 57*

      • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

      • Output, 11*

      • Prices, 11*

      • Trade, 27

    • Lebanon

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Lesotho

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Less Developed Countries

      • See Primary Producing Countries

    • Liberia

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90 SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Luxembourg

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • International reserves, 57*

      • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Madagascar

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 80

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

    • Malawi

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 62

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

    • Malaysia

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 62

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Maldives

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 66, 102*, 105*

    • Mali

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Malta

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Mauritania

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 116*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Mauritius

      • Eligibility for Trust Fund assistance, 86

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangements with Fund, 110*

    • Membership in Fund, 90

    • Mexico

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 76, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75

      • Trade, 26 (fn.)

    • Middle East

      • Balance of payments, 16*, 27

      • International reserves, 57*

      • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

      • Output, 11*

      • Prices, 11*

      • Trade, 27

    • Morocco

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 105*, 112*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

    • Nepal

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 62

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Netherlands

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Economic policies, 73

      • Exchange rate, 73, 99*

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

      • International reserves, 48*, 57*

      • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

      • Purchases from Fund, 71, 73

      • SDRs, 68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • New Zealand

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Economic activity and policies, 12

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

    • Nicaragua

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Niger

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Nigeria

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • International reserves, 48*

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Nonindustrial Countries

      • See Primary Producing Countries

    • Norway

      • Balance of payments, 20

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • International reserves, 57*

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Trade, 20

    • Official Development Assistance (ODA), 31

    • Oil Facility in Fund

      • Borrowing by Fund, 54, 72*, 112*

      • Charges, 113*

      • Interest payments by Fund, 84

      • Purchases under, 72*, 85*

      • Repayment by Fund, 54, 71, 76, 77, 78, 112*, 135, 136

      • Repurchases under, 71, 75, 83, 85, 109*–110*

      • Use of Fund resources, 71†

      • See also Subsidy Account

    • Oman

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • Quota increase, 116*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 2, 28; contributions of members to Trust Fund, 86, 87

    • Pakistan

      • Exchange rate, 99*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Panama

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

    • Papua New Guinea

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 80

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

    • Paraguay

      • Eligibility for Trust Fund assistance, 86

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 62

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Peru

      • Economic activity and policies, 73

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

    • Philippines

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 80

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 62

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of buffer stock facility, 74

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

    • Portugal

      • Balance of payments, 29

      • Economic activity and policies, 12, 29

      • Exchange rate, 29, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

      • Trade, 29

    • Primary Producing Countries

      • Balance of payments, 24–27, 41, 42, 43

      • Borrowing from capital markets, 24, 29

      • Economic activity and policies, 10, 30, 41,42, 43

      • Effect of exchange rate variability on, 41

      • Effect of floating exchange rates on, 40

      • Exchange rates, 33–34, 42, 43

      • Forward exchange facilities and markets, 42

      • Purchases from Fund, 73

      • Stand-by arrangements with Fund, 72

      • Trade, 20, 24, 40, 41, 42, 43

      • See also individual countries

      • Less Developed Countries

        • Major Oil Exporting Countries

          • Balance of payments, 2, 13, 15*, 16*, 27–28, 49

          • Capital flows, 22

          • Commodity prices, 14†

          • Deposits in private banks, 52

          • Economic activity and policies, 10, 11–12, 28

          • Eurocurrency deposits, 52

          • Exchange arrangements, 41*

          • Foreign exchange holdings, 49

          • International reserves, 47, 52, 57*

          • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

          • Oil facility financing, 54

          • OPEC price increases of June 1979, 2

          • Output, 11*

          • Prices, 11*

          • Trade, 2, 12–13, 15*, 27–28

          • See also Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

        • Non-Oil Developing Countries

          • Balance of payments, 1, 2, 13, 15*, 16*, 22–23, 25–26, 27, 31, 43

          • Borrowing from private banks, 23, 31

          • Capital flows, 22–23, 31

          • Debt and debt service, 26†, 27†

          • Economic activity and policies, 2, 10–11, 30–31

          • Exchange arrangements, 41*

          • Export earnings, 24†

          • Import volume, 24†

          • International reserves, 47, 57*

          • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

          • Output, 11*

          • Prices, 11*

          • Trade, 1, 2, 12–13, 15*, 22–23, 24–27, 31

          • Use of official financing, 25

    • More Developed Countries

      • Balance of payments, 2, 13–14, 15*, 16*, 28–29

      • Economic activity and policies, 2, 10, 12, 28–29, 30

      • Exchange arrangements, 41*

      • Exchange rates, 12, 29, 30

      • International reserves, 46–47, 57*

      • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

      • Output, 11*

      • Prices, 11*

      • Trade, 2, 12, 13, 15*, 28–29

    • Publications of Fund, 117*

    • Qatar

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Quotas of Fund Members

      • Increases in, 33, 60, 61, 116*

      • Seventh General Review, 32, 54, 56, 60, 61, 65, 118–23

      • Sixth General Review, 54, 60, 61, 77, 90

    • Romania

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Lending to Trust Fund, 86

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

    • Rwanda

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota payment to Fund, 70

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • St. Lucia

      • Application for Fund membership, 90

    • St. Vincent

      • Application for Fund membership, 90

    • São Tomé and Principe

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • Saudi Arabia

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85*

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Foreign exchange holdings, 47

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • International reserves, 47, 48*

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • Senegal

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Seychelles

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • Sierra Leone

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Singapore

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90

      • Quota increase, 61, 90

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

      • Trade, 26 (fn.)

    • Solomon Islands

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Membership in Fund, 90, 116* (fn.)

      • Quota established, 90

      • Quota payment to Fund, 70

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Somalia

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • South Africa

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 70, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70, 102*, 106*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75

    • Spain

      • Balance of payments, 29

      • Capital flows, 29

      • Charges paid to Fund, 70

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Economic activity and policies, 12, 29

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • International reserves, 29, 48*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70, 102*, 106*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75, 110*

    • Special Drawing Rights

      • Allocation, 23, 33, 48, 55, 58, 60, 65, 104*–106*, 129; for third basic period, 66, 123–28

      • Characteristics, 33, 55, 65

      • Currencies pegged to, 41

      • Currencies transferred for, 69, 107*

      • Holdings: by General Resources Account, 58*, 68*, 69, 76, 84*, 103*; by “other holders,” 67; by participants, 46, 47*, 48, 58*, 66, 104*–106*

      • Inclusion in operational budget, 76

      • Interest, charges, and assessments, 68*, 70, 83, 84*,103*, 104*–106*, 129

      • Interest rate on, 65, 66, 82, 128

      • Priority sales by Fund, 76

      • Private market for, 67

      • Purchases and repurchases by members, 69, 76, 103*, 108*

      • Quota payments in, 68*

      • Reconstitution of participants’ holdings, 65, 66, 68,71, 103*, 129–30

      • Remuneration paid to members, 70–71, 82†, 103*; rate of, 128–29

      • Replenishment of participants’ currencies, use in, 103*

      • Role as reserve asset, 46, 55, 65, 66–67

      • Role in international monetary system, 33

      • Transactions and operations, summary of, 104*–106*

      • Transfers: by agreement, 67, 68, 69*, 103*, 104*–106*, 107*; to and from General Resources Account, 68*, 69, 71, 103*, 104*–106*; total, 68*, 103*; with designation, 68, 69, 70*, 76, 103*, 104*–106*, 107*

      • Uses, 33, 55, 65, 67–68, 130–34

      • See also individual countries

    • Special Drawing Rights Department

      • Participants, 60, 65, 66, 90

      • Transactions and operations, 68

      • See also Special Drawing Rights

    • Sri Lanka

      • Balance of payments, 43

      • Exchange rate, 43, 100*

      • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73–74, 112*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

      • Staff of Fund, 91

    • Stand-By Arrangements for Fund Members, 63, 72, 73, 75, 83, 108*, 110*, 111*; use of supplementary financing facility under, 55, 74

    • Subsidy Account, 84–86

    • Substitution Account, 33, 55, 56, 60

    • Sudan

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Extended arrangement with Fund, 75

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 80

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

      • Use of supplementary financing facility, 75

    • Supplementary Financing Facility

      • Borrowing by Fund, 54, 74, 78

      • Charges, 75, 81, 113*

      • Establishment, 60, 74

      • Extended arrangements, use with, 55

      • Interest rate payable by Fund, 78

      • Main features, 74

      • Purchases by members, 74, 81

      • Purposes, 54–55, 63

      • Repayment, 136

      • Repurchases by members, 74

      • Stand-by arrangements, use with, 55

    • Suriname

      • Acceptance of Article VIII obligations, 65

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Membership in Fund, 116* (fn.)

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • Surveillance over Exchange Rate Policies

      • Applicability, 45

      • Article IV authority for, 44

      • Executive Board review of procedures, 64, 136

      • Fund’s approach to, 32, 34, 44

      • Supplemental surveillance procedure, 44, 64, 136

      • United States, 64

    • Swaziland

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Purchases from Fund, 73

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Sweden

      • Balance of payments, 20

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

      • International reserves, 57*

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • Quota increase, 62

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

      • Trade, 20

    • Switzerland

      • Association with General Arrangements to Borrow, 77

      • Balance of payments, 20

      • Borrowing by Fund, 72*, 77

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Economic activity and policies, 5, 17—18, 40, 46

      • Exchange rate, 17, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*

      • Foreign exchange holdings, 49

      • International reserves, 46, 48*, 57*

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • Repayment by Fund, 76, 77, 83

    • Syrian Arab Republic

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota increase, 116*

      • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Tanzania

      • Economic policies, 43

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 43, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Technical Assistance and Training by Fund, 87–88

    • Thailand

      • Balance of payments, 43

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 43, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Purchases from Fund, 73

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Togo

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Trinidad and Tobago

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Trust Fund

      • Disbursements, 60, 71—72, 86, 115*

      • Gold auctions, 80, 86—87

      • Investments, 87, 134

      • Members eligible for assistance, 60, 86

      • SDR as unit of account, 67

      • Terms and conditions of loans, 86

      • Trust Instrument, 134

    • Tunisia

      • Exchange rate. 100*, 114*

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • Turkey

      • Balance of payments, 29

      • Economic activity and policies, 12, 29

      • Exchange rate, 29, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

    • Uganda

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 80

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 106*

    • United Arab Emirates

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • United Kingdom

      • Balance of payments, 15, 17†, 20, 21*

      • Charges paid to Fund, 70

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Economic activity and policies, 5, 6†, 7,8†, 9, 19t, 82†

      • Exchange rate, 17, 19, 34, 35†, 36†,37*,100*

      • Foreign exchange holdings, 49, 52

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

      • International reserves, 47, 48*, 57*

      • Membership in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.)

      • Official sterling claims on, 58*, 59*

      • Output, 3*

      • Prices, 3*

      • Purchases and repurchases from Fund, 70, 71, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 109*

      • Role of sterling as reserve currency, 55

      • SDRs, 69, 70*, 102*, 106*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 72, 75, 77, 110*

      • Trade, 20

    • United States

      • Balance of payments, 15, 17†, 19, 21*,30, 38*, 51, 52, 53, 76

      • Economic activity and policies, 1, 3–6,7, 8t, 9, 17–18, 19†, 20, 24, 30, 37,39_40, 46, 68, 73, 82†

      • Exchange rate, 17, 18, 20, 30, 36†, 37,38*, 49*, 50†, 100*

      • Foreign exchange holdings, 46

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

      • International reserves, 18, 46, 48* (fn.),57*

      • Official claims on, 52*, 58*, 59*

      • Oil price increases in, 2

      • Output, 3*

      • Prices, 3*

      • Purchases from Fund, 61, 71, 73, 76, 77, 78

      • Remuneration paid by Fund, 71

      • Repayment by Fund, 77

      • Role of dollar as reserve currency, 55

      • SDRs, 66, 68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*

      • Trade, 19, 55

    • Upper Volta

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • Uruguay

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 75, 110*

    • Venezuela

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • International reserves, 48*

      • Oil facility financing, 112*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Viet Nam

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • Western Samoa

      • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 110*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of oil facility, 85* Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • World Trade

      • See International Trade

    • Yemen Arab Republic

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Yemen, People’s Democratic Republic of

      • Exchange rate, 100*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 110*

      • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 106*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of oil facility, 85*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Yugoslavia

      • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

      • Contribution to Trust Fund, 86, 87

      • Exchange rate, 101*

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Quota payment to Fund, 70

      • Repurchases from Fund, 110*

      • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Zaïre

      • Economic policies, 43

      • Exchange arrangements, 41

      • Exchange rate, 43, 101*

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 80

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Repurchases from Fund, 110*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

    • Zambia

      • Economic policies, 43

      • Eligibility for Trust Fund assistance, 86

      • Exchange rates, 43, 101*

      • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

      • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

      • Purchases and repurchases from Fund,73, 110*

      • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73,110*

      • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

      • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

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