Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
September 1971
    Share
    • ShareShare
    Show Summary Details

    INDEXES

    Index A. International Monetary Fund

    References to individual countries, other organizations, and subjects may be found in Index B

    An asterisk (*) denotes a table, a dagger (†) denotes a chart

    • Articles of Agreement

      • Article IV

        • Section 5(c)(i)—Changes in par values, 37-38

        • Section 8, Maintenance of gold value of the Fund’s assets, 165

      • Article V, Transactions with the Fund, 202-203

        • Section 6(a), Purchases of currencies from the Fund for gold. 45, 46, 168

        • Section 7, Repurchase by a member of its currency held by the Fund, 45, 160-61, 162, 164, 167

        • Section 8(f), Payment of Fund charges, 181

        • Section 9, Remuneration, 47, 182

      • Article VII, Section 2(ii), Measures to replenish the Fund’s holdings of scarce currencies, 43, 168*

      • Article VIII, General Obligations of Members, 47-48, 155, 156*, 174-75

      • Article XII, Section 6(b), Reserves and distribution of net income, 182(fn), 183

      • Article XIV, Transitional Period, 47, 174-75

      • Article XXIII, Participants and Other Holders of Special Drawing Rights, 155

      • Article XXIV, Allocation and Cancellation of Special Drawing Rights, 155

      • Article XXV, Operations and Transactions in Special Drawing Rights, 39, 169, 171, 174

      • Article XXVI, Special Drawing Account, Interest and Charges, 181

      • Schedule B, Provisions with Respect to Repurchase by a Member of Its Currency Held by the Fund, 164

      • Schedule F, Designation, 39

    • Board of Governors

      • Allocation of special drawing rights, 169

      • Distribution of Fund’s net income, 182(fn), 183

      • Increases in quotas of members, 42, 43, 155, 156

      • Terms and conditions for membership of Fiji, 155

    • By-Laws, Rules and Regulations

      • Rule I, Repurchases and Charges in Respect of General Account Transactions, 164-65, 182, 203, 208-209

    • Consultations with Members

      • Articles VIII and XIV, 47, 48, 174-75

    • Exchange Rates

      • Changes, 37, 38, 83, 98, 100, 165, 167(fn)

      • Report and discussion on role in adjustment, 13-14

      • Study, 16, 37

      • See also Par Values of Members

    • Executive Board Decisions

      • 7-(648), Voluntary Repurchases, 161

      • 321-(54/32), Transactions and Computations Involving Fluctuating Currencies, 165

      • 1477-(63/8), as amended, Compensatory Financing of Export Fluctuations, 162* (fn)

      • 1687-(64/22), Exchange Transactions Prior to Establishment of Initial Par Value, 158*(fn)

      • 2192-(66/81), See 1477-(63/8)

      • 2901-(69/122) G/S, Use of Special Drawing Rights in Repurchases, and Payment of Charges, 169

      • 2914-(69/127), South Africa: Policy on Sales of Gold to the Fund, 168, 169

      • 3033-(70/38), Use of Special Drawing Rights in Payment of Remuneration, 182

      • 3049-(70/44), Effects of Amended Articles on Calculation of Monetary Reserves and Repurchase Obligations Pursuant to Article V, Section 7(b), 164, 202-203

      • 3087-(70/64), Transactions and Computations Involving Fluctuating Currencies—Application of Rules to the Canadian dollar, 165(fn)

      • 3130-(70/87), Use of Special Drawing Rights in Distribution of Net Income, 183(fn), 203-204

      • 3132-(70/87), Disinvestment of $400 million in U.S. Government Securities, 182, 204

      • 3150-(70/93), Sales of Gold by the Fund Under Article VII, Section 2(ii), in Accordance with Board of Governors Resolution: Increases in Quotas of Members—Fifth General Review, 43, 204-205

      • 3153-(70/95), Payments Arrears in Current International Transactions, 47-48, 205-206

      • 3179-(70/102), Fourth International Tin Agreement: Buffer Stock Financing Facility, 44, 207

      • 3294-(71/22), Replenishment of Currency Holdings by Sales of Gold, 46, 207-208

      • 3314-(71/33), Calculation of Repurchase Obligations, 165(fn), 208-209

      • 3315-(71/33), Repurchases: Small Amounts Included in Article V, Section 7(b) Obligations, 209

      • 3320-(71/34), Exclusion of Special Drawing Rights in Certain Calculations of Monetary Reserves for the Fund’s Financial Years Ending April 30, 1971 and 1972, 209-210

    • Executive Directors

      • List and voting power, 155, 211-13

      • Membership changes, 155, 214-17

    • External Debt Management

      • Role of Fund in assisting members, 48

    • Financial Statements

      • See Organization and Administration

    • General Account

      • Balance sheet, 223-24

      • Borrowing

        • Interest payment, 168

        • Repayment, 42, 46-47, 167, 182

        • See also General Account, General Arrangements to Borrow

      • Buffer stock financing, 44, 207

      • Canadian dollar transactions, 165, 167

      • Charges to members, 40, 44, 168, 180-81

      • Compensatory financing, 44, 45, 158*, 160, 161, 162*

      • Currency holdings and replenishment, 40, 41, 43, 45-46, 147, 148, 168, 207-208

      • Currency purchases by members, 42, 43-44, 93, 95, 156, 157, 158*, 159, 160, 162, 165*, 166t, 167

      • Currency repurchases by members, 27, 35, 40, 41, 42, 44-45, 159*, 160, 161, 162, 163*, 164, 165, 167, 168, 202

      • Distribution of net income, 41, 182*(fn), 183, 203-204

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 46, 160, 167, 182

      • Gold

        • Disinvestment in U.S. Government securities, 21, 23, 45, 147, 168, 182, 204

        • Distribution of sales, guidelines for, 46

        • Holdings, 43, 45, 143, 147, 167-68

        • Interest on borrowing, 168

        • Purchases from members, 19 (fn), 21, 42, 45, 142, 144, 147, 168-69

        • Quota subscriptions, 21, 42, 43, 45, 146, 147, 168, 204-205

        • Remuneration, use in, 47, 168, 182

        • Replenishment, use in, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 148, 168, 207-208

        • Repurchase obligations, 164*, 168

        • Summary of transactions, 168*

        • Transactions with United States, 148; see also Disinvestment in U.S. Government securities

      • Income, expenditure, and reserves, 44, 47, 180-83, 220, 225

      • Remuneration, 41, 47, 168, 182, 183

      • Replenishment, See General Account, Currency holdings and replenishment

      • Reserve positions in Fund, 18†, 19*, 21, 22*, 25*, 27, 28*, 29*, 36, 42

      • Stand-by arrangements, 43-44, 158*, 159, 160, 161*, 166†

      • Transactions in special drawing rights, 21, 22*, 38, 39, 40-41, 42, 45, 46, 47, 169, 171, 172-73*, 174, 175*, 181

    • Gold

      • Subsidy programs of members, 151

      • See also General Account, Gold

    • International Organizations

      • Relations with, 48, 179-80

    • Managing Director

      • Addresses, etc., 179, 180

    • Membership

      • Barbados, 43, 155

      • Fiji, 155

      • Total, 155

      • Western Samoa, 155

      • Yemen Arab Republic, 43, 155

    • Monetary Reserves Data

      • Reporting by members, 164-65, 202, 210

    • Organization and Administration

      • Audit Committee, 222, 229, 183

      • Budget, 183, 218-19

      • Financial statements, 221-30

      • Staff, 180

      • Staff Retirement Fund, 229-30

    • Par Values of Members

      • Changes, 3, 37-38, 83, 100, 101, 133, 134, 155-56

      • Established, 37, 155, 156

      • See also Exchange Rates

    • Payments Arrears

      • Policy on, 47-48, 205-206

    • Publications, 183-84

    • Quotas of Members

      • Fifth General Review, increases, 21, 42-43, 45, 147, 148, 155, 156, 157*, 204-205

      • New members, 43, 155

    • Services to Members

      • Balance of Payments Division, 178

      • Bureau of Statistics, 47, 175, 177

      • Central Banking Service, 47, 175-76

      • Fiscal Affairs Department, 47, 175, 177, 178

      • IMF Institute, 47, 178

      • Technical assistance, 47, 175-78

    • Special Drawing Account

      • Balance sheet, 227

      • Designation system, 39, 40, 169, 171, 174*

      • Participants, 38, 42-43, 155, 172-73*

      • Special drawing rights

        • Allocations, 3, 12, 13, 18, 21, 22*, 23*, 25, 27, 32*, 35, 38, 41*, 43, 86, 93, 112, 115†, 118†, 119, 120†, 121, 155, 169, 170*, 172-73*, 228

        • Holdings by General Account, 21, 22*, 39, 171*, 174, 228

        • Holdings by participants, 21, 27, 38, 39-40, 41*, 172-73*, 228

        • International reserves

          • Impact on, 21, 22*, 29, 32, 35-36

          • Per cent of, 18†, 19*, 27, 29*, 38

        • Monetary reserve calculations, 209-210

        • Requirement of need, 39, 40, 169

        • Summary of transactions and operations, 172-73*, 228

        • Transfers between participants, 38, 39, 169, 171, 172-73*, 174, 228

          • Transfers to and from General Account

          • Distribution of net income, 171*, 174, 175*, 183, 203-204, 228

          • Interest, charges, and assessments, 38, 40, 41, 169, 171*, 172-73*, 174, 181, 228

          • Remuneration, 47, 171*, 175*, 182, 228

          • Replenishment of currencies, 40, 45, 46, 171*, 175*, 228

          • Repurchases, 38, 40, 41, 159*, 162, 164, 169, 171*, 174, 228

        • Transfers, summary statement, 171*, 228

        • Unit of value, 21 (fn), 169 (fn)

      • Summary of participants’ positions, 41-42

    Index B. Countries, Organizations, and Subjects

    An asterisk (*) denotes a table, a dagger (†) denotes a chart

    • Afghanistan

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157* Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 161*

    • Africa

      • Balance of payments, 81*, 120*, 125

      • Capital movements, 121

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 69*, 73*, 74-75

        • Imports, 76*, 77

        • Terms of trade, 69*

        • Trade balance, 79-80

      • International reserves, 28*

      • See also individual countries

    • Algeria

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*, 79

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Argentina

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 127, 200*, 201*

      • Economic situation and policy, 126-27

      • Exchange rate, 127

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 126

        • Imports, 76*, 80

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*, 175*

      • Prices, 126

    • Asia

      • Balance of payments, 81*, 120*, 200*, 201*

      • Capital movements, 121

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 69*, 72, 73*

        • Imports, 77

        • Terms of trade, 69*

        • Trade balance, 79

      • International reserves, 28*

      • See also individual countries

    • Australia

      • Balance of payments, 114, 118, 199*

      • Capital movements, 13, 118

      • Economic situation and policy, 118

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 72, 73*, 118

        • Imports, 76*, 77, 118

        • Trade balance, 77, 78*

      • Gold production and subsidy program, 143*, 144, 151

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • International reserves, 118

      • Prices and wages, 118

    • Austria

      • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*, 101, 186*

      • Capital movements, 87*, 108*, 136

      • Discount rate, 104

      • Economic situation and policy, 101

      • Euro-currency position, 108*

      • Exchange market, 11, 133

      • Exchange rate, 10-11, 100, 133, 135, 136, 138; see also IMF, Par value

      • Foreign trade, 57*, 60, 61*, 101

      • Gold sales, 43

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Quota, 42

        • Par value, 3, 37-38, 83, 101, 134

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Prices, 101

    • Bahrain

      • Gold imports from United Kingdom, 148

    • Balance of Payments

      • Adjustment process, 11, 13-17

      • Industrial countries, 10, 12, 81*, 82, 83*, 87*, 186-98*

      • Primary producing countries—less developed, 3, 13, 81*, 86, 119-32, 200-201*

        Primary producing countries—more developed, 3, 13, 81*, 86, 112, 114, 115, 116*, 117-18, 199*

      • Summary, 27, 81*

      • See also individual countries

    • Bank for International Settlements

      • Euro-dollar deposits, 32

      • Gold transactions, 143, 144*, 146, 148*

    • Barbados

      • IMF

        • Membership, 43, 155

        • Special drawing rights, 155, 170*, 172*

    • Belgium

      • Balance of payments, 32*, 100

      • Capacity utilization, 58*

      • Capital movements, 32*, 100, 104, 110, 133, 136

      • Discount rate, 104

      • Economic situation and policy, 100

      • Euro-currency position, 110

      • Exchange market, 3, 10-11, 83, 100, 133

      • Exchange rate, 100, 135, 137†, 138

      • Exports, 67†

      • Gross national product, 57*, 100

      • Interest rates, 104-105

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • General Arrangements to Borrow, 167*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 32*, 39, 170*, 172*, 174

      • International reserves, 28*, 32*

      • Prices and wages, 67†, 100

      • See also Belgium-Luxembourg

    • Belglum-Luxembourg

      • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*, 187*

      • Bond issues, 111*

      • Capital movements, 87*, 108*

      • Euro-currency position, 108*

      • Exchange controls, 134

      • Exchange market, 38, 134

      • Foreign trade, 57*, 60*, 61*

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

    • Bolivia

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Botswana

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Brazil

      • Balance of payments, 32*, 122*, 123, 125, 200*, 201*

      • Capital movements, 32*

      • Economic situation and policy, 125-26

      • Exchange rate policy, 75

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 75, 125-26

        • Imports, 76*, 80

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gross national product, 126, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 162*, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 32*, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

      • International reserves, 32*

      • Prices and wages, 126

    • Burma

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Exports, 74

      • Gold sale to United States, 148

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 160, 162*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangement, 161*

    • Burundi

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 160, 162*

        • Currency repurchase, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Cameroon

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Canada

      • Balance of payments, 10, 12, 32, 83*, 84†, 85†, 87*, 90, 91. 188*

      • Bond issues and yields, 91, 110, 111, 113†

      • Budget, 91, 92

      • Capital movements, 10, 32, 84†, 86*, 87*, 90, 91, 108*, 109, 110

      • Discount rate, 104

      • Economic policy, 81, 90, 91, 92

      • Economic situation, 6, 7, 90-92

      • Euro-currency position, 108*, 109, 110

      • Exchange market, 133

      • Exchange rate, 3, 12, 33, 37, 38, 91, 134, 135, 136†, 139†, 165

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 51*, 52, 60*, 61, 66†, 90, 91

        • Imports, 54*, 57*, 90, 91

        • Trade balance, 9, 54, 55†, 61, 63

      • Gold production and subsidy program, 143*, 144, 151

      • Gross national product, 4†, 56*, 57*, 91

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

      • Interest rates, 90-91, 104, 105*†

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • General Arrangements to Borrow, 167*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 32*, 39-40, 91, 170*, 172*, 175*

      • International reserves, 27, 28*, 32*, 91

      • Prices and wages, 4†, 6, 7, 63, 64*, 65, 66† 91-92

      • Tax reform, 92

      • Unemployment, 91, 92

      • Wages, 92

    • Capital Movements

      • Impact on reserves and domestic credit conditions, 29, 32-33, 36, 102

      • Interest rate differentials and speculative flows, 6(fn), 10, 20, 81-82, 83, 133, 139-40, 141

      • Measures to influence, 14-17, 134, 139

      • See also individual countries

    • Central African Republic

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158, 159*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Central America

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • See also Western Hemisphere and individual countries

    • Ceylon

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 129, 200*, 201*

      • Budget, 129

      • Currency note substitution, 129

      • Economic situation and policy, 129

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

      • Money supply, 129

    • Chad

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Chile

      • Balance of payments, 123, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade, 73*, 75, 76*, 78*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • China, Republic of

      • Balance of payments, 123, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 71, 73*

        • Imports, 76*, 77, 79

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gold purchase from United States, 148

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Par value, 37, 156

        • Special drawing rights, 39 (fn)

    • Colombia

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 125, 200*, 201*

      • Economic situation and policy, 125

      • Exchange rate policy, 125

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 75, 125

        • Imports, 76*, 80, 125

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gold production, 143*

      • Gross national product, 125, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 162*

        • Currency repurchase, 161, 162*, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Congo, Democratic Republic of

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 124, 200*, 201*

      • Economic situation and policy, 124

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 75

        • Imports, 76*, 79

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gold production, 143*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Par value, 37, 156

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Congo, People’s Republic of the

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Costa Rica

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 167*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Cmea Countries, mainland China, etc.

      • Gold transactions, 142, 144*

    • Cyprus

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Dahomey

      • Exports, 75

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Denmark

      • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*, 101, 189*

      • Capital movements, 87*, 101, 104

      • Discount rate, 104

      • Economic situation and policy, 101

      • Foreign trade, 57*, 60*, 61*, 62

      • Import/gross national product ratio. 57*

      • Incomes policy, 101

      • Interest rates, 101, 104, 105*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Prices and wages, 101

    • Dominican Republic

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade, 75, 80

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*, 175*

    • Ecuador

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Exports, 75

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 155, 156*

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 162*

        • Currency repurchase, 162*, 163*, 164*

        • Par value, 37, 156

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • El Salvador

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 162*

        • Currency repurchase, 160, 162*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Equatorial Guinea

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Ethiopia

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF quota increase, 157*

    • Euro-Currency Markets

      • Components, 103

      • Euro-dollar borrowing by Europe and United States, 3, 88-89, 90, 103, 109, 134, 136-37

      • Expansion, 15-16, 102, 103

      • Interest rates, 81, 98, 102, 103, 104, 105†, 109, 112, 133, 139, 141

      • International reserves, role in, 23-25

      • Official holdings, 15, 23, 24-25, 36, 103

      • Positions of banks in United Kingdom, 108*

    • Europe

      • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*

      • Bond issues, 111, 112

      • Capital movements, 3, 6, 87*, 134

      • Economic situation and policy, 6, 9, 81

      • Euro-dollar borrowing, 103

      • Foreign trade, 53, 54*, 63

      • Gold transactions, 148

      • Interest rates, 6, 81, 134

      • See also individual countries

    • European Economic Community

      • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*

      • Bond issues, 111*

      • Capital movements, 87*

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 8 (fn), 51*, 52

        • Trade balance, 55†, 61*

      • Gross national product, 4†

      • Interest rates, 133

      • Prices, 4†, 8 (fn)

      • Swap transactions, 29, 30-31*

    • European Free Trade Association

      • Exports, 51*, 52

    • European Fund

      • Gold transactions, 144*

    • Exchange Rates

      • Report and discussion on role in adjustment, 13-14, 16

    • Fiji

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF membership, 155

    • Finland

      • Balance of payments, 114*, 115, 116, 199*

      • Capital movements, 13

      • Economic situation and policy, 115-16

      • Exchange market, 133

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 72, 73*

        • Imports, 76*, 77

        • Trade balance, 77, 78*

      • Incomes policy, 72, 115-16

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*, 175*

      • Prices and wages, 115, 116

    • Foreign Exchange Markets

      • Forward quotations, 138-41

      • Recent developments, 133-35

      • Spot quotations, 135-38

    • France

      • Balance of payments, 10†, 12, 32*, 83, 84†, 85†, 87*, 95, 190*

      • Banks’ reserve requirements, 107, 134

      • Bond issues and yields, 111*, 113†

      • Capacity utilization, 58*

      • Capital movements, 10†, 32*, 83*, 85†, 87*, 95, 104, 107, 108*, 110, 133, 134, 137

      • Debt repayment, 95

      • Discount rate, 96, 104

      • Economic situation and policy, 95-96

      • Euro-currency position, 108*, 110

      • Exchange market, 133, 135

      • Exchange rate, 135, 137, 139†, 140

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 8, 60*, 61, 62, 65, 67†, 95

        • Imports, 57*, 62, 95

        • Trade balance, 9, 54, 55†, 61*, 62

      • Gold

        • Market, 149-50, 151

        • Transactions, 148

      • Gross national product, 4†, 56*, 57*, 96

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

      • Industrial production, 95, 96

      • Interest rates, 104, 105, 107, 140

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase, 46, 95, 159

        • Currency repurchase, 46, 156*, 164*, 167

        • General Arrangements to Borrow, 46, 167*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 32*, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangement, 161*

      • International reserves, 27, 28*, 32*, 95

      • Prices, 4†, 8, 64*, 65, 67†, 96

      • Swap transactions, 23, 29

    • Gabon

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • The Gambia

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

      • Fund relations with, 179, 180

    • Germany

      • Balance of payments, 10, 11, 32*, 82, 83*, 84†, 85†, 86*, 87*, 97-98, 191*

      • Banks

        • Credit changes, 97†

        • Reserve requirements, 97, 98, 107, 134

      • Bond issues and yields, 111*, 112, 113†

      • Capacity utilization, 58, 59

      • Capital movements, 3, 6, 10, 11, 20, 32*, 33, 83, 85†, 87*, 98, 107, 108*, 110, 133, 135, 136

      • Currency revaluation, effects of, 65, 96, 97, 98

      • Discount rate, 96, 98, 104

      • Economic situation and policy, 9, 82, 96-98

      • Employment, 97†

      • Euro-currency position, 107, 108*, 110

      • Exchange market, 133

      • Exchange rate, 3, 10, 11, 37, 38, 83, 98, 107, 134, 135, 137†, 138, 139†, 140, 167 (fn)

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 60, 62, 64*, 65, 67†

        • Imports, 56, 57*, 58†, 59

        • Trade balance, 9, 55†, 61*, 62

      • Gold sale to United States, 148*

      • Gross national product, 4, 56*, 57*, 96, 97†

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

      • Interest rates, 96, 98, 104, 105*, 106†, 107

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • General Arrangements to Borrow, 167*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 32*, 39, 40, 170*, 172*, 175*

      • International reserves, 20, 27, 28*, 32*, 33, 98

      • Prices and wages, 4†, 8, 64, 65, 67†, 96, 97†

      • Tax measures, 97

      • Wages, 96, 97

    • Ghana

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 200*, 201*

      • Debt rescheduling, 127, 128

      • Economic measures, 128

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 75

        • Imports, 76*, 79

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gold production, 143*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 161*, 170*, 172*

    • Gold

      • Absorption by private holders, industry, and arts, 141, 142, 144*, 145†, 146-47, 149

      • Holdings, 18†, 19*, 21, 22*, 142, 144-46, 147

      • Markets, 141-42, 149-51

      • Movements, 147-49

      • Prices, 141, 142, 149-51, 169

      • Production, 142, 143-44, 145†, 146*

      • Sales, private, 142

      • Subsidy programs, 151

      • Two-tier price system, 18 (fn)

      • See also Index A, General Account

    • Greece

      • Balance of payments, 116*, 199*

      • Exchange market, 133

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 72, 73*

        • Imports, 76*, 77

        • Trade balance, 77, 78*

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*, 175*

    • Guatemala

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase, 161, 162*, 163*, 164*

        • Currency repurchases, 44-45, 162*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Guinea

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Guyana

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 160 (fn), 161*

    • Haiti

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase, 162*

        • Currency repurchase, 160, 161, 162*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Honduras

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase, 158*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Hong Kong

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 72, 73*

        • Imports, 76*, 77

        • Trade balance, 78*

    • Iceland

      • Balance of payments, 158*

      • Exports, 72

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 161, 162*

        • Currency repurchase, 44, 160, 162, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • India

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 123-24, 128-29, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 74

        • Imports, 76*, 79

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gold market, 151

      • Gross national product, 128, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 44-45, 162*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 38, 40, 170*, 172*

      • Monetary policy, 128

    • Indonesia

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 127-128, 200*, 201*

      • Debt rescheduling, 127

      • Economic situation and policy, 127-28

      • Exchange rate, 128

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 74, 76*

        • Imports, 79

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 127, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

        • Technical assistance, 175

      • Prices, 128

    • Industrial Countries

      • Balance of payments, 10, 12, 81*, 82, 83*, 87*, 186-98

      • Capital movements, 10, 82, 86*, 87*, 104

      • Classification, 52 (fn)

      • Economic policy, 5-6, 14-15, 16, 81, 100

      • Economic situation, 5, 51-52, 53, 100

      • Euro-currency holdings, 19*

      • Exchange rates, 35

      • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 52, 54*, 59, 60*, 61, 63

        • Imports, 8-9, 52, 53, 54*, 56-59

        • Trade balance, 9, 54, 55†, 61*, 63

      • Gross national product, 4†, 5, 6, 51*, 56, 57*

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 9, 52, 56-57, 59

      • Import/reserves ratio, 26†

      • IMF

        • Currency purchases, 157, 166†

        • Special drawing rights, 12, 27, 41-42

        • Stand-by arrangements, 166†

      • International reserves, 20, 27, 28*

      • Prices, 4†, 5, 7, 8, 63, 64-68

      • See also individual countries

    • Interest Rates

      • See Capital Movements, Euro-Currency Markets, and individual countries

    • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

      • Fund relations with, 179, 180

    • International Bond Market Issues and yields, 102-103, 110-13

    • International Monetary Fund

      • See Index A

    • International Monetary System

      • Adjustment process, 14-16

      • Recent developments, 9-13

      • Principles and characteristics, 13-14, 20-21

    • International Reserves

      • Adjustment process, impact on, 33-35

      • Capital movements, effects of, 29, 32, 33, 36

      • Components

        • Foreign exchange, 3, 18†, 19-20, 22*, 23, 25*, 27, 28*, 29*, 36

        • Gold, 18†, 19*, 21, 22*, 25, 27, 28*, 29*

        • Reserve positions in IMF, 18†, 19*, 21, 22*, 25*, 27, 28*, 29*, 36, 42

        • Special drawing rights, 18†, 19*, 21, 22*, 25*, 27, 28*, 29*, 38

      • Developments, 20, 25-29

      • Domestic economies, impact on, 32-33

      • Euro-currency market, effects of, 23-25

      • Import/reserves ratio, 25, 26, 34

      • Measurement, 18 (fn)

      • Policy issues, 35-36

      • Special drawing rights, effects of, 18-19, 27, 29, 32, 35, 36

      • Summary, 19*, 25*

    • Iran

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 124, 132, 200*, 201*

      • Economic situation, 132

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 74

        • Imports, 76*, 79

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gross national product, 130*, 132

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Iraq

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 155, 170*, 172*

    • Ireland

      • Balance of payments, 116*, 199*

      • Decimal currency system, 156

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 72, 73*

        • Imports, 76*, 77

        • Trade balance, 77, 78*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Israel

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*, 175*

    • Italy

      • Balance of payments, 10†, 12, 83*, 84†, 85†, 87*, 98, 99, 192*

      • Bond issues and yields, 111, 113†

      • Capacity utilization, 58*

      • Capital movements, 10†, 12, 85†, 86*, 87*, 98, 99, 104, 108*, 110, 133, 135, 137

      • Discount rate, 99, 104

      • Economic situation and policy, 98-99

      • Euro-currency position, 108*, 110

      • Exchange market, 133, 135

      • Exchange rate, 134, 135, 137, 141

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 60*, 62, 67†, 99

        • Imports, 57*, 99

        • Trade balance, 55†, 61*, 62-63, 65, 99

      • Gold transactions, 43, 148

      • Gross national product, 4, 56*, 57*, 99 (fn)

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

      • Interest rates, 99, 104, 105*, 106†

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Borrowing by Fund, 46-47, 167, 182

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 38, 170*, 172*, 175*

      • International reserves, 12, 28*, 99

      • Prices and wages, 4, 64*, 65, 67†, 98

      • Tax measures, 99

    • Ivory Coast

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 75

        • Imports, 76*, 79

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Jamaica

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Exports, 75

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

        • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Japan

      • Balance of payments, 10†, 12, 32*, 83*, 84†, 85†, 87*, 93, 193*

      • Bond issues, 111*

      • Budget, 92-93

      • Capital movements, 10†, 20, 32*, 85†, 87*, 93, 107, 108*, 110, 133, 134, 138

      • Discount rate, 93, 104

      • Economic situation and policy, 6, 92-93

      • Euro-currency position, 107, 108*, 110

      • Exchange rate, 134, 135, 136†, 138

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 51*, 52, 60*, 61, 63*, 65, 66†, 92

        • Imports, 8, 53, 54*, 57*, 107, 134

        • Trade balance, 9, 55†, 61-62

      • Gold

        • Holdings, 143, 147

        • Imports from United Kingdom, 148-49

        • Production, 143*

      • Gross national product, 4†, 6, 56, 57*, 92

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

      • Interest rates, 105, 107, 134

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Borrowing by Fund, 46-47, 167, 182

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 32*, 40, 93, 170*, 172*, 175*

      • International reserves, 12, 27, 28* 32*, 93

      • Prices and wages, 4, 8 (fn), 52, 63*, 64*, 65, 66†, 92

    • Jordan

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Kenya

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*, 79

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Khmer Republic

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Exports, 74

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 42 (fn), 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Korea

      • Balance of payments, 123, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 72, 73*

        • Imports, 76*, 77

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

        • Quota, 42

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Kuwait

      • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*, 79

      • Gold transactions, 148

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Quota increase, 42, 157*

    • Laos

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Latin America

      • Balance of payments, 120*, 125, 200*, 201*

      • Capital movements, 108*, 121

      • Euro-currency position, 108*

      • Foreign trade, 53

      • Import/reserves ratio, 26†

      • International reserves, 28*

      • Swap transactions, 30-31*

      • See also Western Hemisphereand individual countries

    • Lebanon

      • Gold market, 151

      • IMF quota, 42

    • Lesotho

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Liberia

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Libyan Arab Republic

      • Balance of payments, 32*, 123, 200*, 201*

      • Capital movements, 32*

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*

        • Imports, 76*, 79

        • Trade balance, 78*, 80

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF quota increase, 42, 157*

      • International reserves, 32*

    • Luxembourg

      • Exchange market, 134

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Quota, 42

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • See also Belgium-Luxembourg

    • Malagasy Republic

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Malawi

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

        • Par value, 37, 156

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Malaysia

      • Balance of payments, 123, 125, 200*, 201*

      • Economic situation and policy, 124-25

      • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*, 79, 124, 125

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

    • Mali

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 161*

    • Malta

      • Balance of payments, 199*

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 40, 170*, 173*

    • Mauritania

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Mauritius

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Mexico

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 126, 200*, 201*

      • Capital inflows, 123, 126

      • Economic situation and policy, 126

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 75, 126

        • Imports, 76*, 80, 126

        • Trade balance, 78*, 80

      • Gold production, 143*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170, 173*, 175*

        • Prices and wages, 126

    • Middle East

      • Balance of payments, 81*, 120*, 200*, 201*

      • Capital movements, 108*, 121

      • Euro-currency position, 108*

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 69*, 73*, 74

        • Imports, 77

        • Terms of trade, 69*

        • Trade balance, 78*, 79

      • Import/reserves ratio, 26†

      • International reserves, 28*

      • See also individual countries

    • Minerals and Metals

      • Prices, 64, 68, 69

    • Morocco

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 74

        • Imports, 76*, 79

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Nepal

      • IMF

        • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Netherlands

      • Balance of payments, 32*, 83*, 87*, 101, 194*

      • Bond issues and yields, 111, 113†

      • Capacity utilization, 58*

      • Capital movements, 20, 32*, 33, 87*, 101, 104, 108*, 110, 133, 136

      • Discount rate, 104

      • Economic situation and policy, 100-101

      • Euro-currency position, 108*, 110

      • Exchange market, 10, 133 Exchange rate, 3, 10, 37, 38, 83, 100, 101, 134, 135, 137†, 138, 140, 167(fn)

      • Foreign trade, 60*, 61*, 57*, 67†, 100

      • Gold holdings and purchase, 143, 147, 148

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

      • Interest rates, 104, 105, 106†, 107

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • General Arrangements to Borrow, 167*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 32*, 39, 170*, 173*, 174, 175*

      • International reserves, 28*, 32*

      • Prices and wages, 65, 67†, 68, 100

      • Swap transactions, 140

    • New Zealand

      • Balance of payments, 114, 118, 199*

      • Capital movements, 118

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 72, 73*

        • Imports, 76*, 77

        • Trade balance, 77, 78*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 162*, 163*

        • Quota, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170,* 173*

    • Nicaragua

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase, 158*

        • Currency repurchase, 161, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Niger

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Nigeria

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 131, 200*, 201*

      • Development plan, 131

      • Economic situation, 131

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 75, 131

        • Imports, 76*, 79, 131

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      • Money supply, 131

    • Nordic Countries

      • Swap transactions, 30-31*

      • See also individual countries

    • Norway

      • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*, 195*

      • Capital movements, 87*, 101

      • Economic situation and policy, 101-102

      • Exchange market, 133

      • Foreign trade, 57*, 60*, 61*, 62

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      • International reserves, 101

      • Prices, 101

      • Tax measures, 101

    • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

      • Fund relations with, 179, 180

    • Pakistan

      • Balance of payments, 123-24, 129, 200*, 201*

      • Economic situation, 129

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 74

        • Imports, 76*, 79, 129

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency repurchase, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Panama

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Imports, 80

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Paraguay

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Exports, 75

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Peru

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 129, 200*, 201*

      • Cost of living, 129

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 75

        • Imports, 76*, 80

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase, 158*

        • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*, 170*, 173*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 161*

      • Repatriation of assets, 123, 129

    • Philippines

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 127, 200*, 201*

      • Debt rescheduling, 127

      • Economic situation and policy, 127

      • Exchange rate, 127

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 74, 127

        • Imports, 76*, 79, 127

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gold production and subsidy program, 143*, 151

      • Gross national product, 127, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

      • Prices, 127

      • Swap transactions, 30-31*

    • Portugal

      • Balance of payments, 116*, 199*

      • Exchange market, 133

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 72, 73*

        • Imports, 76*, 77

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gold holdings, 143, 147

      • IMF quota increase, 42

    • Prices

      • Commodity, 8, 53, 64, 68-71

      • Industrial countries, 4†, 5, 7, 8, 63, 64-68

      • Minerals and metals, 64, 68, 69

      • Primary producing countries, 5, 70-71

      • See also individual countries

    • Primary Producing Countries

      • Balance of payments, 3, 12, 13, 81*, 82, 86

      • Capital movements, 3, 13, 82, 86

      • Commodity prices, 68-71

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 8, 53, 54, 68, 72, 75, 86, 160

        • Imports, 53-54, 60, 61, 75, 76*, 86

        • Terms of trade, 3, 8, 69

        • Trade balances, 78*

      • Gross national product, 5

      • IMF

        • Currency purchases, 157, 160

        • Special drawing rights, 12, 41-42, 157

        • Stand-by arrangements, 44, 159

      • See also Primary Producing Countries—Less Developed, Primary Producing Countries—More Developedand individual countries

    • Primary Producing Countries—Less Developed

      • Balance of payments, 13, 81*, 86, 119-21, 200*, 201*

      • Bond issues, 110-111*

      • Capital movements, 120-21

      • Classification, 52 (fn)

      • Debt repayment, 127

      • Euro-currency holdings, 24*

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 51*, 52, 53, 54, 63*, 64, 69*, 72, 73*

        • Imports, 53, 54, 64, 76*, 77

        • Terms of trade, 8, 53, 69*

        • Trade balance, 9, 54, 55†, 78*

      • Gross national product, 51*, 52-53, 77, 130*

      • Import/reserves ratio, 26†, 27, 88

      • IMF special drawing rights, 13, 86, 119, 120†, 121

      • International reserves, 13, 27, 28*, 86, 88, 119-20, 121

      • Prices, 5, 70-71

      • See also individual countries

    • Primary Producing Countries—More Developed

      • Balance of payments, 13, 81*, 86, 112, 114, 115, 116*, 117, 118†, 200*

      • Capital movements, 112, 114, 115†, 118†

      • Classification, 52 (fn)

      • Economic policy, 114

      • Euro-currency holdings, 24*

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 51*, 53, 69*, 73*, 76*

        • Imports, 54, 64, 76*, 77, 114-15

        • Terms of trade, 8, 69*

        • Trade balance, 9, 51*, 55†, 77, 78*, 118†

      • Gross national product, 51*, 77

      • Import/reserves ratio, 26

      • IMF special drawing rights, 13, 86, 112, 115†, 118†

      • International reserves, 28*

      • Prices, 5

      • See also individual countries

    • Production

      • World output, 3, 5, 51*

    • Qatar

      • Gold imports from United Kingdom, 148

    • Rhodesia

      • Gold production, 143*

    • Rwanda

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Exports, 75

      • IMF

        • Currency repurchase, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 174

    • Saudi Arabia

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*, 79

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Quota increase, 157*

    • Scandinavian Countries

      • Bond issues, 111

      • Foreign trade, 61, 63

      • See also individual countries

    • Senegal

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*. 173*

    • Sierra Leone

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Singapore

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Exchange market, 133

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 74

        • Imports, 76*, 79

        • Trade balance, 78*, 79

      • Gold market, 149, 151

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Quota, 42

    • Somalia

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Currency repurchase, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 161*

    • South Africa

      • Balance of payments, 13, 114, 118, 142, 168-69, 199*

      • Capital movements, 13, 118

      • Economic situation and policy, 118-19

      • Exchange market, 133

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 72, 73*, 118-19

        • Imports, 76*, 77, 118, 119

        • Trade balance, 77, 78*

      • Gold

        • Holdings, 146, 149

        • Production, 142, 143, 144, 148, 149

        • Sales, 18 (fn), 21, 43, 141, 142, 144, 147, 148, 149, 168, 169

        • Subsidy program, 151

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

        • Gold sales to, 18 (fn), 21, 142, 144, 147, 149, 168, 169

        • Quota, 42, 142

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      • International reserves, 142

    • Spain

      • Balance of payments, 13, 32*, 114*, 115, 116*, 117, 199*

      • Capital movements, 13, 32*, 117

      • Cost of living, 117

      • Discount rate, 117

      • Economic measures, 117

      • Economic situation and policy, 115, 117

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 72, 73*

        • Imports, 76*, 77, 117

        • Trade balance, 77, 78*

      • Gold holdings and sales, 142-43, 146, 148

      • Gross national product, 117

      • Interest rates, 117

      • IMF

        • Currency repurchase, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 32*, 40, 170*, 173*

      • International reserves, 32*, 117

    • Sudan

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 162*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 156*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

    • Swap Arrangements

      • Transactions, 19*, 20, 23, 25*, 29, 30-31*

      • See also individual countries

    • Swaziland

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Sweden

      • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*, 102, 135, 196*

      • Capital movements, 87*, 135

      • Discount rate, 104

      • Economic situation and policy, 102

      • Exchange market, 133

      • Exchange rate, 134, 135, 136†

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 60*, 66†, 102

        • Imports, 57*

        • Trade balance, 61*

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • General Arrangements to Borrow, 167*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

      • International reserves, 102

      • Prices and wages, 66†, 102

    • Switzerland

      • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*, 101

      • Bond issues and yields, 112, 113†

      • Capital movements, 20, 32*, 86*, 87*, 101, 107, 108*, 110, 133, 136

      • Economic situation and policy, 101

      • Euro-currency position, 107, 108*, 110

      • Exchange market, 11, 133

      • Exchange rate, 3, 11, 83, 100, 101, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139†, 140

      • Foreign trade, 57*, 60*, 61*, 62

      • Gold

        • Holdings, 143, 147

        • Market, 149

        • Purchases, 148

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

      • Interest rates, 105f, 106†, 107, 140

      • International reserves, 28*, 32*

    • Syrian Arab Republic

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 162*

        • Currency repurchase, 160, 162*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

    • Tanzania

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

    • Thailand

      • Balance of payments, 123*, 125, 200*, 201*

      • Economic situation and policy, 125

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 74, 125

        • Imports, 76*, 79, 125

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 155, 170*, 173*

      • Tax increases, 125

    • Togo

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Trinidad and Tobago

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162, 163*

        • Quota increase, 156*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Trucial States

      • Gold imports from United Kingdom, 148

    • Tunisia

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Exports, 74

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

        • Quota, 42

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 161*

    • Turkey

      • Balance of payments, 114*, 116*, 117, 199*

      • Currency devaluation, 37, 117, 155

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 72, 73*

        • Imports, 76*, 77

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gold holdings and sale, 147, 148

      • Gross national product, 117

      • Industrial production, 117

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*, 164*

        • Par value, 37, 155

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Uganda

      • Balance of payments, 122*, 130-31, 200*, 201*

      • Exchange controls, 130

      • Foreign trade, 75, 129-30

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      • Nationalization measures, 129-30

    • U.S.S.R.

      • Gold sales, 142, 145†

    • United Arab Republic

      • Balance of payments, 123-24, 131, 200*, 201*

      • Economic situation and policy, 131

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 74, 131

        • Imports, 76*, 79

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162*, 163*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      • Loans and credits, 131

    • United Kingdom

      • Balance of payments, 10†, 12, 83*, 84†, 85†, 87*, 93, 94, 95, 197*

      • Bank credit, 94

      • Bond issues and yields, 111, 113†

      • Budget, 94

      • Capacity utilization, 58*, 59

      • Capital movements, 10†, 85†, 86*, 87*, 93, 94, 107, 108*, 109, 110, 133, 135, 137

      • Debt repayment, 93, 135

      • Decimal currency system, 156

      • Discount rate, 104

      • Economic policy, 81, 94, 95

      • Economic situation, 6, 93-95

      • Euro-currency market, 107, 108*, 109, 110

      • Exchange controls, 134

      • Exchange market, 133, 135

      • Exchange rate, 107, 134, 135, 136†, 139, 140

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 8 (fn), 60*, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66†, 93

        • Imports, 57*, 59, 62, 93, 94

        • Terms of trade, 93

        • Trade balance, 9, 55, 61*, 62

      • Gold

        • Market, 149, 150†, 169

        • Transactions, 148-49

      • Gross national product, 4†, 6, 56, 57*, 94

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

      • Interest rates, 105†*, 106†, 107, 133, 140

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase, 46, 93, 159, 160, 166†

        • Currency repurchase, 27, 44, 46, 160, 163*, 167

        • General Arrangements to Borrow, 46, 167*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 38, 39, 40, 41, 170*, 173*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*, 166†

      • International reserves, 28*

      • Money supply, 94

      • Prices and wages, 4†, 6, 7, 8 (fn), 64*, 65, 66†, 94

      • Sterling balances, dollar-value guarantee on, 18 (fn)

      • Swap transactions, 23, 29, 30-31*

    • United Nations

      • Fund relations with, 179

    • United States

      • Balance of payments, 3, 10, 11, 20, 21, 23*, 24, 25, 27, 36, 82, 83, 84†, 85†, 87*, 88†, 89, 90, 134, 198*

      • Banks

        • Liabilities, 109, 110

        • Reserve requirements, 90, 109, 110, 134

      • Bond issues and yields, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113†

      • Budget, 88†, 89

      • Capacity utilization, 58*, 59

      • Capital movements, 3, 10†, 11, 20, 24, 27, 82, 84†, 85†, 86*, 87*, 88†, 90, 107, 109, 133, 134; see also Euro-dollar borrowing

      • Discount rate, 90

      • Economic policy, 6, 9, 11, 20, 24, 81, 88, 89, 102, 103

      • Economic situation, 6, 7, 9, 24, 88-90

      • Euro-dollar borrowing, 3, 24, 88-89, 90, 103, 107, 108*, 109, 110, 133, 134, 136-37

      • Exchange market, 133, 135

      • Foreign trade,

        • Exports, 8, 51*, 52, 60*, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66†

        • Imports, 8, 53, 54*, 56, 57, 58†, 59

        • Trade balance, 9, 54, 55†, 61*, 62, 63, 65

      • Gold

        • Holdings, 21, 142, 147-48

        • Market, 151

        • Production, 143*, 144

        • Transactions, 21, 23, 43, 148; see also IMF, Gold transactions

      • Gross national product, 4†, 5, 6, 51*, 56, 57, 88, 89

      • Import/gross national product ratio, 57, 59

      • Import/reserves ratio, 26†

      • Interest rates, 10, 11, 24, 81, 88, 90, 103-104, 105†, 109, 134

      • IMF

        • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

        • Currency purchase, 43, 158*, 159, 166†, 167

        • General Arrangements to Borrow, 167*

        • Gold transactions, 21, 23, 45, 147, 148, 168, 204

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 21, 23, 27, 38, 39, 41, 170*, 173*, 174, 175*

        • Stand-by arrangement, 166†

      • International reserves, 20 (fn), 21, 23, 27, 28*

      • Money supply, 88†, 89, 90

      • Prices and wages, 4†, 6, 7, 8, 63, 64*, 65, 66†, 89, 90

      • Swap transactions, 20 (fn), 25, 27, 29, 30-31*

      • Unemployment, 6, 88

    • Upper Volta

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Uruguay

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade, 75, 80

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 162*

        • Currency repurchase, 44, 160, 161, 162*, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Venezuela

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Viet-Nam

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • Exports, 74

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Western Hemisphere

      • Balance of payments, 120*, 200*, 201*

      • Capital movements, 121

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 69, 75

        • Imports, 77

        • Terms of trade, 69

        • Trade balance, 80

      • See also individual countries

    • Western Samoa

      • Application for Fund membership, 155

    • World Trade

      • Import/reserves ratio, 25, 26†, 34

      • Industrial countries, 8-9, 52, 53, 54*, 55, 56-59, 60*, 61*, 63

      • International reserves, effects of increases in, 34-35

      • Prices, 7-8, 34, 52, 57, 63-64, 68-69

      • Primary producing countries, 3, 8, 53-54, 60, 61, 68, 72, 75, 76*, 78*

      • Primary producing countries—less developed, 8, 9, 51*, 52, 53, 54, 55†, 63*, 64, 69*, 72, 73*, 76*, 77, 78*

      • Primary producing countries—more developed, 8, 9, 51*, 53, 54, 55†, 64, 69*, 73*, 76*, 77, 78*

      • Restrictions, 34-35

      • Trade balances, 9, 55†, 62

      • Value and volume, 3, 7†, 8, 34, 51, 52, 54*, 57

    • Yemen Arab Republic

      • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

        • Membership, 43

        • Quota increase, 42 (fn), 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 155, 170*, 173*

    • Yemen, People’s Democratic Republic of

      • IMF

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Yugoslavia

      • Balance of payments, 13, 114*, 115, 116, 199*

      • Currency devaluation, 37, 117, 156

      • Discount rate, 116

      • Economic situation and policy, 115, 116-17

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 72, 73*, 116

        • Imports, 76*, 77, 116, 117

        • Trade balance, 77, 78*

      • IMF

        • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

        • Par value, 37, 156

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

        • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

      • Prices and wages, 116, 117

      • Tax measures, 116

    • Zambia

      • Balance of payments, 123*, 124, 200*, 201*

      • Economic situation and policy, 124

      • Foreign trade

        • Exports, 73*, 75, 123, 124

        • Imports, 76*, 79

        • Trade balance, 78*

      • Gross national product, 130*

      • IMF

        • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

        • Quota increase, 157*

        • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      You are not logged in and do not have access to this content. Please login or, to subscribe to IMF eLibrary, please click here

      Other Resources Citing This Publication