Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
September 1969
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    INDEX

    Numbers refer to pages. An asterisk (*) denotes a table, a dagger (†) denotes a chart.

    Afghanistan—balance of payments and reserves, 100; monetary policy, 100; purchases from Fund, 35, 141*, 144; repurchase from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 142, 143

    Africa—agricultural products, 102, 104, 107; balance of payments and reserves, 55*, 56, 102, 103, 178-79*; commodity exports to industrial countries, 102*; economic developments, 102, 103-108; export earnings, 102*, 104*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 63*, 89; international trade, 50†, 53, 89, 90†, 91, 92*, 93*, 95*, 97*, 102, 104*; see also individual countries

    African Development Bank—Fund relations with, 159

    African Institute for Economic Development and Planning−158

    Agricultural Products−97; prices, 94, 95*, 96†, 99*, 102*

    Algeria—balance of payments and reserves, 105; export earnings, 104*; Fund quota increase, 140*; gold purchases, 132; international trade, 104, 105

    Argentina—balance of payments and reserves, 56, 113*, 116-17, 178-79*; capital movements, 111; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; economic developments, 116-17; export earnings, 111*; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 40, 139; gross domestic product, 117; inflation, 116, 117; international trade, 94, 110, 111*; prices, 115*, 117; repurchase from Fund, 148*; stabilization policies, 114, 115, 116-17; stand-by arrangements, 143*; wages, 117

    Articles of Agreement—see Fund Articles of Agreement

    Asia—balance of payments and reserves, 55*, 56, 97, 98*, 99, 178-79*; commodity exports to industrial countries, 99*; economic developments, 8, 97-102; export earnings, 99*, 100*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 63*; gross national product, 97; international trade, 50†, 89, 90†, 91, 92, 93*, 95*, 97, 100*; prices, 99*; see also individual countries

    Asian Development Bank—Fund relations with, 159

    Asian Institute for Economic Development and Planning−158

    Australia—balance of payments and reserves, 55, 117, 118, 177*; bond issues abroad, 86*; capital movements, 117; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; economic developments, 117-18; fiscal policy, 117; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 63*; gold production, 128*; gold subsidy program, 136; gross national product, 117; international trade, 50†, 90†, 91*, 92, 93*, 94, 95*, 97*, 117

    Austria—balance of payments and reserves, 56*, 82, 164*; capital movements, 82; currency used in Fund transactions, 36, 153; economic situation, 81-82; employment, 82; fiscal policy, 81; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gross national product, 81; industrial production, 82; international trade, 47*, 52*, 82; monetary policy, 81; prices, 82

    Balance of Payments−54-62, 163-79*; industrial countries, 8-11, 11-12, 163-76*; primary producing countries, less developed, 8, 178-79*; primary producing countries, more developed, 8, 177*; see also individual countries

    Balance of Payments Adjustment Process—conditional liquidity, relation to need for, 29-31†; developments, 28-29; industrial countries, 6, 11-13; international liquidity, relation to, 14-32; mechanism of exchange rate adjustment, relation to, 31-32

    Basle Group—borrowing arrangements for sterling area, 75, 84

    Bank for International Settlements—capital movements, 84, 85; Fund relations with, 159; gold transactions, 129*; swap transactions, 64, 66

    Belgium—balance of payments and reserves, 57, 81; borrowing and repayment under General Arrangements to Borrow, 154*; capital movements, 57, 66, 81, 84, 124; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; discount rate, 71†, 81; economic situation, 81; employment, 70†; exchange rates, 122, 124; fiscal policy, 81; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 66; gold purchases, 132; industrial production, 70t; interest rates, 124; international trade, 81; monetary policy, 81, 121, 124; swap transactions, 65; see also Belgium-Luxembourg

    Belgium-Luxembourg—balance of payments and reserves, 56*, 60*, 165*; capital movements, 60*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 63*; international trade, 47, 52*, 54

    Bolivia—balance of payments and reserves, 113*, 178-79*; capital movements, 111; export earnings, 111*; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; international trade, 111*; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchase from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 143

    Board of Governors—see Fund Board of Governors

    Bonds, Government—yields, 87†

    Bonds, Industrial—yields, 87†

    Botswana—membership in Fund, 33, 139

    Brazil—balance of payments and reserves, 56, 113*, 116, 178-79*; capital movements, 111; economic developments, 116; export earnings, 111*, 116; fiscal policy, 116; gold exploration, 128; gross domestic product, 116; inflation, 116; international trade, 110, 111*; prices, 115*, 116; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchases from Fund, 148*; stabilization policies, 114, 115, 116; stand-by arrangements, 143; wages, 116

    Buffer Stock Financing, Facility to Be Established for−38-40

    Burma—balance of payments and reserves, 98*, 178-79*; export earnings, 100*; Fund quota increase, 140; gross national product, 98; international trade, 100*; purchase from Fund, 141*, 144*; rice production, 100; waiver granted by Fund, 147

    Burundi—purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchases from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 143

    Cambodia—membership in Fund, application for, 34, 139

    Cameroon—export earnings, 104*; Fund quota increase, 140*; international trade, 104*, 106

    Canada—balance of payments and reserves, 56*, 60*, 73, 166*; bond issues abroad, 86*, 88; bond issues from abroad, 86*; bonds, government, yields on, 87 †; bonds, industrial, yields on, 87 f; borrowing and repayment under General Arrangements to Borrow, 154*; capital movements, 60, 61*, 62, 73; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; discount rates, 69, 71t, 73; economic situation, 72-74; employment, 4, 72; exchange rates, 122, 123, 124, 125t; fiscal policy, 73; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 24, 63*, 64, 65, 66; gold production, 128; gold sales, 66, 132; gold subsidy program, 135; gross national product, 68t, 72; inflation, 3, 6; interest rates, 69, 73, 85t; international trade, 44, 46t, 47*, 49t, 51, 52, 73, 90†, 92*; monetary policy, 73; prices, 3, 4, 6, 67, 69t, 72-73; repurchase from Fund, 73, 148*; swap transactions, 65, 73; tax surcharges, 74

    Capital Markets—industrial countries, 11; see also individual countries

    Capital Movements−121; industrial countries, 3, 8, 57, 59-62; see also individual countries

    Caribbean Free Trade Area−114

    Center for Latin American Monetary Studies−158

    Central African Republic—export earnings, 104*; Fund quota increase, 140*; international trade, 104*, 106

    Central American Common Market−112-13

    Central Banking Service—see Fund Organization and Administration

    Ceylon—agricultural products, 97; balance of payments and reserves, 98*, 178-79*; capital movements, 99; economic developments, 99-100; export earnings, 100*; fiscal policy, 98, 99; gross national product, 97; international trade, 97, 99, 100*; monetary policy, 99; prices, 99*; purchases from Fund, 141*, 144*; repurchase from Fund, 148*; standby arrangements, 142, 143*; waiver granted by Fund, 147

    Chad—export earnings, 104*; Fund quota increase, 140*; international trade, 104*

    Chile—balance of payments and reserves, 56, 113*, 116, 178-79*; capital movements, 111, 116; economic developments, 116; export earnings, 111*; inflation, 116; international trade, 110, 111*; monetary policy, 116; prices, 115, 116; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchase from Fund, 148*; stabilization policies, 114, 115, 116; stand-by arrangements, 143; wages, 116

    China, Mainland—gold purchases, 129*

    China, Republic of—agricultural products, 101; balance of payments and reserves, 98*, 178-79*; economic developments, 101; export earnings, 100*; gross national product, 101; industrial production, 101; international trade, 100*, 101; monetary policy, 101; prices, 101

    Cocoa—prices, 94, 95*, 102*, 105; production, 105

    Coffee—prices, 95*, 102*, 105*

    Colombia—balance of payments and reserves, 56, 113*, 115, 178-79*; capital movements, 111; economic developments, 115; export earnings, 111*; fiscal policy, 115; gold production, 128*; inflation, 115; international trade, 110, 111*, 115; prices, 115*; purchases from Fund, 141 *, 144*; repurchases from Fund, 148*; stabilization policies, 114, 115; stand-by arrangements, 143

    Commodity Prices—see Prices

    Compensatory Financing—see Fund Transactions

    Congo (Brazzaville)—export earnings, 104*; Fund quota increase, 140*; international trade, 104*

    Congo, Democratic Republic of—agricultural products, 103; balance of payments and reserves, 56, 102, 103*, 178-79*; economic developments, 103; export earnings, 104*; fiscal policy, 103; gold production, 128*; international trade, 103, 104*; stand-by arrangement, 143*

    Copper—prices, 93, 94, 96†, 102*

    Costa Rica—agricultural products, 112; balance of payments and reserves, 112, 178-79*; capital movements, 112; economic developments, 112; export earnings, 111*; fiscal policy, 112; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; industrial production, 112; international trade, 110, 111*; repurchases from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 143*

    Credit Tranche Positions in Fund−14-15, 16f; ratio to imports, 30, 3It; relation to Fund quotas, 19

    Cuba—repurchase from Fund, 149

    Cyprus—balance of payments and reserves, 108*, 178-79*; Fund quota increase, 140; repurchases from Fund, 148*

    Dahomey—export earnings, 104*; Fund quota increase, 140*; international trade, 104*, 106

    Denmark—balance of payments and reserves, 56*, 167*; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; discount rate, 69, 71t, 83, 84; economic situation, 83-84; fiscal policy, 83, 84; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 84; gross domestic product, 84; interest rates, 69; international trade, 47*, 52*, 84; monetary policy, 83, 84; purchase from Fund, 84; swap transactions, 65

    Discount Rates—industrial countries, 67, 69, 71†

    Dominican Republic—balance of payments and reserves, 178-79*; export earnings, 111*; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; Fund quota increase, 140*; international trade, 111*; purchases from Fund, 141*, 144*; repurchase from Fund, 148*

    Drawings—see Purchases Dubai—par value established, 141

    Ecuador—balance of payments and reserves, 113*, 178-79*; capital movements, 111; economic developments, 114; export earnings, 111*; fiscal policy, 114; gold exploration, 128; international trade, 110, 111*; monetary policy, 114; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchases from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 142, 143*

    El Salvador—agricultural products, 112; balance of payments and reserves, 112, 178-79*; capital movements, 112; economic developments, 112; export earnings, 111*; fiscal policy, 112; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold exploration, 128; industrial production, 112; international trade, 111*; purchase from Fund, 141*; stand-by arrangements, 143*

    Employment—industrial countries, 4, 70t

    Equatorial African Monetary Union—balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 106; capital movements, 106; export earnings, 104*; fiscal policy, 106; international trade, 104*, 106

    Ethiopia—balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 107, 178-79*; economic developments, 107; export earnings, 104*; international trade, 104*,107

    Euro-Currency Markets−7, 11, 18, 63, 66, 69, 72, 81, 84-86, 121; interest rates, 84, 85, 88, 124, 125

    Euro-Issues−86, 87t, 88

    Europe—balance of payments and reserves, 6, 55*, 56, 57, 59, 119*; bond issues from abroad, 86*; capital movements, 78; economic situation, 4, 5, 6; employment, 4, 67; gold and foreign exchange reserves, redistribution of, 24; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 24, 63, 64; inflation, 3; interest rates, 11, 69, 126; international trade, 43, 44, 46t, 47, 48, 50†, 89, 90†, 91*, 92*, 94, 97*; prices, 4, 6; see also individual countries

    European Economic Community—balance of payments and reserves, 10, 56*, 57, 59; bond issues abroad, 86, 88; economic situation, 7; gross national product, 4; international trade, 46†, 47, 53, 54, 90†, 91, 92, 93; see also individual countries

    European Fund—gold transactions, 129*

    European Free Trade Association—international trade, 46t, 47, 92*; see also individual countries

    Exchange Rate Adjustment Mechanism—balance of payments adjustment process, relation to, 31-32

    Executive Directors—see Fund Executive Board

    Export Earnings−91*, 93, 94, 95*, 99*, 100*, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 111*

    Fiji—gold exploration, 128

    Finland—balance of payments and reserves, 56, 119*, 120, 177*; capital movements, 120; currency used in Fund transactions, 36, 153; economic developments, 118, 120; employment, 120; international trade, 48, 120; repurchase from Fund, 148*, 153; wages, 120

    Food—prices, 96†

    Foreign Exchange Markets−3, 121-26; spot, 122-24

    France—balance of payments and reserves, 8, 9, 10, 56*, 57, 58t, 59, 60*, 168*; bonds, industrial, yields on, 87†; borrowing and repayment under General Arrangements to Borrow, 154*; capital movements, 8, 12, 57, 60, 61, 62, 78, 84, 85, 86, 124; claims under General Arrangements to Borrow transferred, 34, 142, 155; currency devaluation, 3, 12, 28; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; discount rate, 7It, 78, 79; economic situation, 3, 4 (fn.), 5, 12, 47, 78-79; employment, 70t, 78; exchange rates, 121, 122, 124, 125, 126; fiscal policy, 3, 12, 69, 78, 79; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 63*, 65: gold market, 135; gold prices, 133, 135; gold sales, 65, 132; gross national product, 68t, 78; industrial production, 45t, 47, 70t, 78; inflation, 3, 6, 12; interest rates, 79, 85t, 125; international trade, 44, 45t, 47, 49t, 51t, 52*, 53, 78; monetary policy, 12, 78-79, 121; prices, 3, 5, 6, 67, 69f, 78; purchase from Fund, 34, 35, 141*, 142, 153*; purchases from Fund, outstanding, 36; swap transactions, 18, 64, 65; wages, 6, 12, 78, 124

    Fund Articles of Agreement—Amendment, Proposed, 28, 29, 33, 34; Article V, Section 3, conditions governing use of Fund resources, 145; Article V, Section 4, waiver of conditions, 147, 149(fn.); Article V, Section 1(b), repurchase obligations, 149, 153, 155; Article V, Section 8(f), payment of Fund charges, 159, 160; Article V, Section 9, remuneration, 36; Article VII, scarce currencies, 154; Article VIII, Sections 2, 3, and 4, acceptance of, 33, 40, 139, 150(fn.); Article VIII, Sections 2, 3, and 4, consultations, 33,40, 155-56; Article XII, Section 6(b), reserves and distribution of net income, 161; Article XII, Section 8, communication of views to members, 147; Article XIV, Section 2, consultations, 33, 40, 155-56

    Fund Assistance to Members—see Fund Services to Members

    Fund Board of Governors—distribution of Fund’s net income approved, 36, 161

    Fund Consultations with Members−40, 155-56

    Fund Currency Holdings—see Fund Resources

    Fund Executive Board−139; Executive Directors, list and voting power, 185-87; membership changes, 188-92; policy on use of Fund resources under stand-by arrangements, review of, 33, 37-38, 144-47, 183-84; stabilization of prices of primary products, interim report on, 33, 38-40

    Fund Executive Board Decisions—7-(648), voluntary repurchases, 149; 155-(52/57), stand-by credit arrangements, 145(fn.); 270-(53/ 95), stand-by credit arrangements, 145 (fn.); 1034-(60/27), Article VIII and Article XIV, 155; 1371-(62/36), currencies for use in repurchase, 150; 2603-(68/132), Use of Fund’s Resources and Stand-By Arrangements, 183

    Fund Financial Statements−193-203

    Fund Gold Holdings—see Fund Resources

    Fund Managing Director—addresses, etc., 158; reappointed, 139

    Fund Members—applications to become, 34, 139; new, 33, 34, 139; par values, 33, 140-41; terms and conditions for membership approved, 34, 139

    Fund Organization and Administration—Audit Committee, 161, 197, 202; budget, 161, 193-94; Central Banking Service, 33, 40, 156-57; Fiscal Affairs Department, 33, 40, 156, 157; income, expenditure, and reserves, 159-61, 195, 200; IMF Institute, 33, 40, 157-58; publications, 161-62; staff, 159; Staff Retirement Fund, 196, 202, 203; see also Fund Board of Governors, Fund Executive Board, and Fund Managing Director

    Fund Quotas—increases, 33, 34, 140; ratio to imports, 30, 3It; relation to credit tranche positions in Fund, 19

    Fund Relations with Other International Organizations−158-59; see also individual organizations

    Fund Resources—General Arrangements to Borrow, 33, 142, 153, 154-55, 160, 161; General Arrangements to Borrow, borrowings and repayments under, 34, 35, 154*; General Arrangements to Borrow, France’s claims transferred, 34, 142, 155; gold and currency holdings, 18*, 36, 129, 154-55; U.S. securities, investment in, 198-99, 201; use under stand-by arrangements, review of policy on, 33, 37-38, 144-47, 183-84

    Fund Services to Members—IMF Institute, 157-58; Joint Computer Center, 159; technical assistance, 33, 40, 156-57; see also Fund Organization and Administration: Central Banking Service, Fiscal Affairs Department

    Fund Transactions−34-36, 141-55; borrowing from Italy, 155, 160; charges to members, 159-60; compensatory financing, 33, 34, 35, 140, 141*, 142, 144, 148, 149; currencies used by Fund, 36, 150-54; gold transactions, 129, 132, 155; net income distributed, 36, 161; purchases by members, 33, 34-35, 141-42, 144, 149-50, 151t, 152t, 153*; purchases by members, outstanding, 35-36; repurchases by members, 33, 35, 144, 148-50, 153*; resources available for financing, 154-55; stand-by arrangements, 33, 35, 142-44, 152t; summary, 149-50; waivers, 147-48

    Gabon—export earnings, 104*; Fund quota increase, 140*; international trade, 104*, 106

    Gambia, The—par value changed, 140

    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade—Fund relations with, 158, 159

    General Arrangements to Borrow—see Fund Resources

    Germany—balance of payments and reserves, 8, 9t, 10, 11, 13, 28, 56*, 57, 58t, 59, 60*, 124, 169*; bonds, government, yields on, 87† bonds, industrial, yields on, 87† borrowing and repayment under General Arrangements to Borrow, 154*; capital movements, 8-9, 10, 57, 59, 60, 61, 77, 78, 85, 86, 124; currency used in Fund transactions, 36, 153; discount rate, 7It, 77, 78; economic situation, 3, 4, 5, 7, 12, 47, 67, 76-78; employment, 67, 70t, 77; exchange rates, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125t, 126; fiscal policy, 69, 77; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 63*, 64, 65-66; gross national product, 68t, 76; industrial production, 45t, 53, 70† inflation, 13; interest rates, 77, 85t, 126; international trade, 3, 44, 45t, 46t, 47, 49t, 51, 52*, 53, 77, 89, 90†, 91, 92*; monetary policy, 77, 78, 124, 126; prices, 5t, 6, 13, 69t, 77; swap transactions, 19, 77, 88

    Ghana—balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 105, 178-79*; cocoa production, 105; economic developments, 105-106; employment, 106; export earnings, 104*; fiscal policy, 106; gold production, 128*; international trade, 104*, 105; purchases from Fund, 141*, 144*; repurchase from Fund, 35, 144*, 148*; standby arrangements, 143*, 144; waiver granted by Fund, 147

    Gold—absorption by private holders, industry, and arts, 127, 129-32; demand for, 127; exploration, 128; holdings, 15*, 16, 17, 18*, 62*, 63, 65-66, 127, 128-32; markets, 126-27, 133-35; movements, 132-33; prices, 127, 133-35; production, 127-28, 129*, 1301, 131*; subsidy programs, 135-36; two-tier price system, 127, 134; see also Fund Transactions

    Greece—balance of payments and reserves, 119, 177*; capital movements, 119

    Gross National Product—industrial countries, 5, 68†

    Guatemala—agricultural products, 112; balance of payments and reserves, 112, 178-79*; capital movements, 112; economic developments, 112; export earnings, 111*; fiscal policy, 112; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; industrial production, 112; international trade, 111*; purchases from Fund, 141*, 144*; repurchase from Fund, 148*, 149; stand-by arrangements, 143*

    Guyana—balance of payments and reserves, 178-79*; capital movements, 114; economic developments, 114; export earnings, 111*; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; interest rates, 114; international trade, 110, 111*; stand-by arrangements, 143*, 144

    Haiti—balance of payments and reserves, 178-79*; export earnings, 111*; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; international trade, 111*; purchase from Fund, 144*; repurchases from Fund, 148*

    Honduras—agricultural products, 112; balance of payments and reserves, 112, 178-79*; capital movements, 112; economic developments, 112; export earnings, 111*; fiscal policy, 112; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; industrial production, 112; international trade, 110, 111*; repurchase from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 143*, 144

    Hong Kong—export earnings, 100*; gold market, 135; gold prices, 133, 135; industrial production, 101; international trade, 100*, 101; prices, 101

    Iceland—balance of payments and reserves, 119, 177*; economic developments, 118, 119-20; fiscal policy, 120; international trade, 48, 119; par value changed, 140; purchases from Fund, 35, 141*, 144; wages, 120; waiver granted by Fund, 147

    India—agricultural products, 97, 98, 99; balance of payments and reserves, 56, 97, 98*, 99, 178-79*; economic developments, 99; export earnings, 100*; fiscal policy, 98-99; gold market, 135; gold prices, 133, 135; industrial production, 98, 99; international trade, 97, 99, 100*; national income, 98; prices, 97, 99*; purchase from Fund, 144*; purchases from Fund, outstanding, 36; repurchases from Fund, 35, 144*, 148*, 149

    Indonesia—agricultural products, 100; balance of payments and reserves, 98*, 178-79*; economic developments, 100-101; export earnings, 100*; industrial production, 100; inflation, 100; interest rates, 101; international trade, 100*; monetary policy, 100; prices, 100; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchase from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 143*, 144

    Industrial Countries−44 (fn.); balance of payments and reserves, 3, 4, 8-11, 55, 57-62; bond issues abroad, 86*; capital markets, 11; capital movements, 3, 8, 57, 59-62; discount rates, 69, 71† economic situation, 3, 4-7, 67-88; employment, 4, 70† fiscal policy, 7; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 24*, 66; gross national product, 5, 68† industrial production, 3, 4, 5, 45t, 70f; inflation, 3, 4; interest rates, 3, 6, 7, 67, 85t; international trade, 3, 4, 7, 8, 43-44, 45t, 46t, 47*, 48-54, 89, 90†, 91t, 92, 93f, 94f; markets for primary producing countries, 89, 91-96, 97, 102*, 117; monetary policy, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11-12; payments imbalances, 54t; prices, 4, 5-6, 67, 69t; purchases from Fund, 152t; ratio of reserves to imports, 22*, 23† stand-by arrangements, 152t; swap transactions, 19, 64; wages, 4; see also individual countries

    Industrial Production—industrial countries, 3, 4, 5, 45t, 70t

    Inflation−3, 26; see also individual countries

    Inter-American Development Bank—Fund relations with, 159

    Interest Rates−26-27, 121; industrial countries, 3, 6, 7, 67, 85† see also Discount Rates

    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development—Fund relations with, 158, 159

    International Bond Market−69, 86-88

    International Liquidity−14-31; adjustment process, relation to, 14-32; conditional liquidity, 19; conditional liquidity, relation of adjustment process to need for, 29-31; supply, 14-21; unconditional liquidity, 27-28

    International Monetary Fund—see Fund

    International Organizations—Fund relations with, 158-59

    International Trade—see World Tradeand individual countries

    Iran—balance of payments and reserves, 108, 109, 178-79*; capital movements, 109; discount rate, 109; economic developments, 109; fiscal policy, 102; monetary policy, 102; prices, 102; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchase from Fund, 148*

    Iraq—balance of payments and reserves, 56, 108, 178-79*; economic developments, 108-109; fiscal policy, 108; gold purchases, 132*; gross national product, 108; purchase from Fund, 177*; repurchase from Fund, 177*

    Ireland—balance of payments and reserves, 119*, 120, 177*; capital movements, 120; currency used in Fund transactions, 36, 153*; economic developments, 118, 120; fiscal policy, 120; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold purchases, 132; gross national product, 120; international trade, 94; monetary policy, 120

    Israel—balance of payments and reserves, 56, 108*, 110, 178-79*; capital movements, 110; employment, 110; gross national product, 110; international trade, 110; monetary policy, 110; prices, 110; wages, 110

    Italy—balance of payments and reserves, 8, 9t, 10, 11, 28, 56*, 57, 58f, 59, 60*, 79, 80, 124, 170*; bonds, government, yields on, 87† bonds, industrial, yields on, 87† borrowing and repayment under General Arrangements to Borrow, 154*; borrowing by Fund, 155, 160; capital movements, 57, 59, 60, 61*, 62, 80, 84, 86, 124; currency used in Fund transactions, 153; discount rate, 71† economic situation, 3, 5, 12, 67, 79-80; exchange rates, 122, 123, 124; fiscal policy, 79, 80; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 63*, 64, 66: go’d purchases, 66, 132; gross national product, 68t, 79; industrial production, 45 f; interest rates, 80; international trade, 44, 45t, 47, 48, 49f, 51 f, 52*, 53, 79; monetary policy, 80, 121, 124, 126; prices, 5, 6, 69t, 79; swap transactions, 19, 66

    Ivory Coast—balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 106, 178-79*; cocoa production, 105; export earnings, 104*; Fund quota increase, 140*; industrial production, 106; international trade, 104*, 105, 106

    Jamaica—balance of payments and reserves, 178-79*; capital movements, 114; economic developments, 114; export earnings, 111*; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; interest rates, 114; international trade, 110, 111*

    Japan—balance of payments and reserves, 9t, 10, 13, 56*, 57, 58f, 59, 60*, 74, 171*; bond issues abroad, 86*, 88; borrowing and repayment under General Arrangements to Borrow, 154*; capital movements, 10, 60, 61*, 62; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; discount rate, 69, 71t, 74; economic situation, 3, 10, 67, 74; employment, 74; exchange rates, 122, 123, 124; fiscal policy, 74; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 24, 63*, 64; gold production, 128*; gross national product, 4, 10, 68t, 74; industrial production, 45f; inflation, 3; interest rates, 69; international trade, 43, 44, 45f, 46t, 47*, 48, 49t, 51t, 52, 54, 74, 90f, 91, 92, 94† monetary policy, 74; prices, 3, 5t, 6, 69t, 74: wages, 74

    Jordan—balance of payments and reserves, 108*, 109, 178-79*; economic developments, 109; repurchase from Fund, 148*

    Kenya—agricultural products, 107; balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 107, 178-79*; economic developments, 107-108; export earnings, 104*; international trade, 104*; monetary policy, 107; prices, 107

    Korea—agricultural products, 101; balance of payments and reserves, 56, 98*, 101, 178-79*; economic developments, 101; export earnings, 100*; gross national product, 101; industrial production, 101; interest rates, 101; international trade, 100*, 101; monetary policy, 101; prices, 101; purchase from Fund, 35, 141*, 142; stand-by arrangements, 143*,144

    Kuwait—balance of payments and reserves, 108*; economic developments, 109; fiscal policy, 109; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gross national product, 109

    Latin America—swap transactions, 20*; see also Western Hemisphereand individual countries

    Latin American Institute for Economic and Social Planning—158

    Lebanon—balance of payments and reserves, 108*; economic developments, 110; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 66; gold market, 135; gold prices, 133, 135; gold purchases, 132; international trade, 110

    Lesotho—membership in Fund, 34, 139; par value established, 140

    Liberia—export earnings, 104*; international trade, 104*; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchases from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 143*

    Libya—balance of payments and reserves, 56, 103*, 178-79*; economic developments, 103; export earnings, 104*; international trade, 103, 104*; monetary policy, 103; prices, 103; wages, 103

    Liquidity—see International Liquidity

    Luxembourg—Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; Fund quota increase, 140*; see also Belgium-Luxembourg

    Malawi—balance of payments and reserves, 178-79*

    Malaysia—balance of payments and reserves, 56, 98*, 101, 178-79*; capital movements, 101; export earnings, 100*; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 40, 139; Fund quota increase, 140*; gross national product, 100; international trade, 100*

    Mali—balance of payments and reserves, 178-79*; export earnings, 104*; international trade, 104*, 106; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchases from Fund, 148*; standby arrangements, 143*, 144

    Malta—balance of payments and reserves, 177*; membership in Fund, 34,139

    Manufacturing Countries—see Industrial Countries

    Mauritania—export earnings, 104*; Fund quota increase, 140*; industrial production, 106; international trade, 104*, 106

    Mauritius—agricultural products, 108; balance of payments and reserves, 178-79*; economic developments, 108; employment, 108; international trade, 108; membership in Fund, 34, 139; purchase from Fund, 35, 141*, 142

    Metals—see Minerals and Metals

    Mexico—balance of payments and reserves, 111, 112*, 178-79*; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; economic developments, 113; export earnings, 111*; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold production, 128*; gross national product, 113; international trade, 110, 111*; monetary policy, 113; prices, 113

    Middle East—balance of payments and reserves, 55*, 56, 108, 178-79*; economic developments, 108-110; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 63*; international trade, 48, 50f, 89, 90†, 91, 92*, 93*, 97*; see also individual countries

    Minerals and Metals—prices, 93*, 94,96f, 102*

    Monetary Policy—industrial countries, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11-12; see also individual countries

    Morocco—balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 105, 178-79*; export earnings, 104*; Fund quota increase, 140*; international trade, 104; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchase from Fund, 148*; standby arrangements, 143*, 144

    Nepal—agricultural products, 97;^ monetary policy, 100; repurchase’ from Fund, 148*

    Netherlands—balance of payments and reserves, 56*, 57, 60*, 80, 172*; bonds, government, yields on, 87† borrowing and repayment under General Arrangements to Borrow, 154*; capital movements, 60*, 80, 84; currency used in Fund transactions, 36, 153*; discount rate, 71 f, 80; economic situation, 80; employment, 67, 80; exchange rates, 122, 123; fiscal policy, 80; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 63*; gold purchases, 132*; gross national product, 80; inflation, 3; interest rates, 85† international trade, 47, 52*, 53, 80; monetary policy, 80, 121, 124; prices, 3, 6; swap transactions, 20*, 65; wages, 80

    New Zealand—balance of payments and reserves, 55, 118, 177*; bond issues abroad, 86*; economic developments, 118; fiscal policy, 118; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 63*; international trade, 50†, 90†, 91*, 92, 93*, 94, 95*, 97*, 117; purchase from Fund, 144*; repurchases from Fund, 35, 144*, 148*, 149; standby arrangement, 143*

    Nicaragua—agricultural products, 112; balance of payments and reserves, 112, 178-79*; capital movements, 112; economic developments, 112; export earnings, 111*; fiscal policy, 112; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; industrial production, 112; international trade, 111*; purchase from Fund, 141*; stand-by arrangements, 143*

    Niger—balance of payments and reserves, 106; export earnings, 104*; Fund quota increase, 140*; international trade, 104*, 106

    Nigeria—agricultural products, 105; balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 105, 178-79*; capital movements, 105; cocoa production, 105; export earnings, 104*; international trade, 104*, 105; repurchase from Fund, 148*, 149

    Nordic Countries—swap transactions, 20*; see also individual countries

    North America—international trade, 43; see also individual countries

    Norway—balance of payments and reserves, 56*, 83, 173*; capital movements, 60, 83; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; economic situation, 83; fiscal policy, 83; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; international trade, 47*, 52*, 83; monetary policy, 83

    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development—Fund relations with, 158

    Organization of American States—Fund relations with, 158

    Pakistan—agricultural products, 97; balance of payments and reserves, 56, 97, 98*, 99, 178-79*; economic developments, 99; export earnings, 100*; fiscal policy, 99; gross national product, 97; international trade, 99, 100*; monetary policy, 99; prices, 97, 99*; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchases from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 99, 142-43

    Panama—balance of payments and reserves, 113*, 178-79*; export earnings, 111*; fiscal policy, 114; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; Fund quota increase, 139, 140*; international trade, 111*; purchases from Fund, 141*; repurchase from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 143

    Par Values—see Fund Membersand individual countries

    Paraguay—balance of payments and reserves, 113*, 178-79*; export earnings, 111*; international trade, 110, 111*; stand-by arrangements, 143*,144

    Payments Imbalances−24-26, 54† industrial countries, 54t

    Peru—balance of payments and reserves, 113*, 178-79*; capital movements, 111; economic developments, 115; export earnings, 111*; fiscal policy, 115; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold sales, 132*; gross domestic product, 115; international trade, 110, 111*; monetary policy, 115; prices, 115; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchase from Fund, 148*; stabilization policies, 114; stand-by arrangements, 143*, 144

    Petroleum—prices, 93*, 102*

    Petroleum Producers−108; balance of payments and reserves, 108*

    Philippines—agricultural products, 101; balance of payments and reserves, 56, 98*, 102, 178-79*; economic developments, 101-102; export earnings, 100*; fiscal policy, 102; gold exploration, 128; gold production, 128*; gold subsidy program, 135; gross national product, 101; international trade, 100*, 101; monetary policy, 101; prices, 101; purchase from Fund, 141*; stand-by arrangements, 143*; swap transactions, 20*

    Portugal—balance of payments and reserves, 119*, 177*; economic developments, 118; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 66

    Prices—commodity, 8, 89, 93, 94, 99*, 102*, 105, 114; industrial countries, 4, 5-6, 67, 69† primary producing countries, 99*, 115*; see also individual countries

    Primary Producing Countries−44 (fn.); balance of payments and reserves, 55-56, 89; bond issues abroad, 86*; capital market, 11; capital movements, 89, 110-11; commodity exports to industrial countries, 91-94, 97; credit costs increased, 4; economic developmerits, 3, 8, 48, 89-120; export earnings, 3, 8, 89-94, 95, 102, 103, 105, 106; gold and foreign exchange reserves, 24*, 89; gold purchases, 66; international trade, 7-8, 43-44, 48, 50†, 53, 89-95; ratio of reserves to imports, 231; see also Primary Producing Countries, Less Developed; Primary Producing Countries, More Developed;and individual countries

    Primary Producing Countries, Less Developed—balance of payments and reserves, 8, 55, 56, 98*, 103*, 108*, 112*, 113*; commodity exports to industrial countries, 102*; economic developments, 97-117; export earnings, 91*, 100*, 104*, 111*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 24-25, 63*; international trade, 91*, 97*, 100*, 104*, 111*; ratio of reserves to imports, 22*; see also individual countries

    Primary Producing Countries, More Developed—balance of payments and reserves, 8, 55, 118*, 119*; economic developments, 117-20; export earnings, 91*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 63*; international trade, 91*, 97*; ratio of reserves to imports, 22*; see also individual countries

    Purchases—see Fund Transactionsand individual countries

    Qatar—par value established, 141

    Quotas of Fund Members—see Fund Quotas

    Reserve Positions in Fund−14, 15, 16,17, 18,62*, 63,65

    Reserves, Gold and Foreign Exchange−14, 15-19, 62-66; adequacy, indications of, 26-27; adjustment process, relation to, 27-28; imports, relation to, 21-23; need for, prospective, 29; redistribution, 23-25; world, 11

    Rhodesia—gold production, 128*

    Rwanda—purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchase from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 143*, 144

    Saudi Arabia—balance of payments and reserves, 108, 178-79*; capital movements, 108; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold purchases, 132

    Scandinavian Countries—bond issues abroad, 86*; capital movements, 84; see also individual countries

    Securities Markets—see Capital Markets

    Senegal—balance of payments and reserves, 106; export earnings, 104*; international trade, 104*, 106

    Sierra Leone—balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 178-79*; export earnings, 104*; international trade, 104*; stand-by arrangements, 143*, 144

    Singapore—balance of payments and reserves, 98*, 178-79*; export earnings, 100*; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 40, 139; gold purchases, 132; international trade, 100*

    Somalia—balance of payments and reserves, 178-79*; international trade, 107; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchases from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 143*, 144

    South Africa—balance of payments and reserves, 55, 118, 177*; bond issues abroad, 86*; capital movements, 117, 118; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; economic developments, 118; fiscal policy, 118; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 24, 63*; gold production, 127, 128; gold subsidy program, 135; gross domestic product, 118; international trade, 50†, 90f, 91*, 92, 93*, 94, 95*, 97*, 117, 118; prices, 118; purchases from Fund, 35, 141*, 142

    Southern Yemen—membership in Fund, application for, 34, 139

    Spain—balance of payments and reserves, 56, 119*, 120, 177*; capital movements, 120; economic developments, 118, 120; employment, 120; international trade, 120; prices, 120; wages, 120

    Special Drawing Account−14, 29, 33, 34

    Special Drawing Rights−28, 29, 33

    Stabilization of Prices of Primary Products—Fund policy on, 38-40, 95; report on, interim, 33, 38-40, 95

    Stabilization Policies—primary producing countries, less developed, 114-17

    Stand-By Arrangements—see Fund Transactionsand individual countries

    Sudan—balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 107, 178-79*; economic developments, 107; export earnings, 104*; fiscal policy, 107; international trade, 104*, 107; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchases from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 143*, 144

    Sugar—prices, 95*, 102*, 105*, 114

    Swap Transactions−11, 14, 18, 19, 20-21, 63-64, 65, 66, 73, 77, 88

    Swaziland—membership in Fund, terms and conditions approved for, 34, 139

    Sweden—balance of payments and reserves, 56*, 82, 174*; borrowing and repayment under General Arrangements to Borrow, 154*; capital movements, 82, 83; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; discount rate, 69, 71, 82, 83; economic situation, 82-83; employment, 67, 70f, 82, 83; exchange rates, 123f; fiscal policy, 82; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gross national product, 82; industrial production, 70, 82; interest rates, 69; international trade, 47*, 52*, 82; monetary policy, 82, 83

    Switzerland—balance of payments and reserves, 56*, 57, 124; bond issues abroad, 86, 88; bonds, government, yields on, 87t; bonds, industrial, yields on, 87† capital movements, 60, 84, 124; discount rate, 71† exchange rates, 122, 123, 124, 125t; gold and foreign exchange reserves, 63*, 64, 65; gold markets, 134-35; gold prices, 133, 134-35; gold purchases, 132, 133; interest rates, 85† international trade, 47*, 52*; swap transactions, 66

    Syrian Arab Republic—balance of payments and reserves, 109, 110, 178-79*; economic developments, 109-110; fiscal policy, 110; international trade, 110; purchase from Fund, 144*; repurchases from Fund, 148*

    Tanzania—agricultural products, 107; balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 107, 178-79*; economic developments, 107-108; export earnings, 104*; international trade, 104*; monetary policy, 107; prices, 107; repurchases from Fund, 148*; wages, 107

    Tea—prices, 95*, 99*, 105*

    Technical Assistance—see Fund Organization and Administrationand Fund Services to Members

    Thailand—balance of payments and reserves, 56, 98*,. 101, 178-79*; export earnings, 100*; gross national product, 100; international trade, 100*, 101

    Togo—balance of payments and reserves, 106; export earnings, 104*; international trade, 104*, 106

    Tonga—par value established, 141

    Trinidad and Tobago—balance of payments and reserves, 178-79*; capital movements, 114; economic developments, 114; export earnings, 111*; Fund quota increase, 139, 140*; interest rates, 114; international trade, 111*; purchase from Fund, 35, 141*, 142

    Tunisia—balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 104, 105, 178-79*; capital movements, 105; export earnings, 104*; international trade, 104; purchase from Fund, 141*; repurchases from Fund, 148*; standby arrangements, 143*

    Turkey—balance of payments and reserves, 119, 177*; international trade, 119; purchases from Fund, 35, 141*; repurchase from Fund, 148*; stand-by arrangements, 143*

    Uganda—balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 107, 178-79*; economic developments, 107-108; export earnings, 104*; international trade, 104*; monetary policy, 107; prices, 107; repurchase from Fund, 148*

    Union of Soviet Socialist Republics—gold sales, 129, 130t

    United Arab Republic—balance of payments and reserves, 108*, 109, 178-79*; economic developments, 109; fiscal policy, 109; gross national product, 109; international trade, 109; purchase from Fund, 144*; repurchase from Fund, 148*; wages, 109

    United Kingdom—balance of payments and reserves, 3 8, 91, 10-11, 12, 13, 28, 55*, 56*, 58t, 59, 60*, 76, 124, 175*; bonds, government, yields on, 87† bonds, industrial, yields on, 87† borrowing arrangements with Basle Group, 75; capital movements, 8, 11, 12, 59, 60, 61*, 62, 76; Corporation Tax, 76; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; discount rate, 69, 71t, 75; economic situation, 10-11, 12, 67, 74-76; employment, 67, 70† exchange rates, 122, 123-24, 125t, 126; fiscal policy, 3, 7, 12, 74, 75, 76; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 17, 18*, 24, 62, 63*, 65, 66; gold markets, 134-35; gold prices, 133, 134-35; gold transactions, 129 (fn.), 132, 133; gross national product, 68t, 75; industrial production, 45f, 70t; inflation, 3, 6; interest rates, 69, 85t, 125; international trade, 44t, 45t, 46t, 47, 48, 49f, 51, 52*, 54, 76, 90†, 91t, 92, 93, 94; monetary policy, 7, 12, 75; prices, 3, 5, 6, 12, 67, 69t, 75; purchase from Fund, 33, 34, 35, 76, 141*, 142, 152t, 153*, 154; purchases from Fund, outstanding, 36; purchase tax surcharge, 75; repurchases from Fund, 35, 148*, 149, 153*; Selective Employment Tax, 75, 76; stand-by arrangements, 33, 76, 143*, 152f; swap transactions, 18, 19, 20*, 64, 65

    United Nations—Conference on Trade and Development, 158; Fund relations with, 158

    United States—balance of payments and reserves, 6, 8, 9-10, 11, 12, 13, 28, 56*, 57, 58t, 59, 60*, 71, 72, 176*; bond issues abroad, 86, 88; bond issues from abroad, 86*, 88; bonds, government, yields on, 87† bonds, industrial, yields on, 87† capital movements, 7, 10, 11, 28, 59, 60, 61, 121; currency used in Fund transactions, 36, 153; discount rate, 69, 71, 72; economic situation, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 51, 67, 69, 71-72; employment, 4, 7, 67, 70t, 71, 72; fiscal policy, 3, 7, 12, 69, 71, 72; Fund Article VIII, acceptance of, 139*; gold and foreign exchange reserves, redistribution of, 24; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 17, 18*, 24*, 62, 63, 65; gold exploration, 128; gold holdings under earmark, 132; gold market, 135; gold prices, 135; gold production, 128; gold transactions, 66, 132; gross national product, 4, 5, 68t, 71, 72; income tax surcharge, 72; industrial production, 44, 45t, 52, 70t; inflation, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 69; Interest Equalization Tax, 72; interest rates, 10, 69, 71, 72, 85f, 121, 124; international trade, 7, 44, 45t, 46t, 47, 48, 49f, 51, 52, 54, 71, 89, 90f, 91, 92, 93f, 94t; investment, direct, controls on, 72; monetary policy, 7, 12, 59, 69, 71, 72, 84, 85; prices, 5, 6, 67, 69*, 71; purchase from Fund, 152f; ratio of reserves to imports, 22*, 23 f; repurchase from Fund, 35, 148*, 149, 153*; standby arrangements, 152f; swap transactions, 19, 20*, 63, 64, 65, 66; wages, 4, 71

    Upper Volta—export earnings, 104*; Fund quota increase, 140*; international trade, 104*, 106

    Uruguay—balance of payments and reserves, 113*, 117, 178-79*; economic developments, 117; export earnings, 111*; gross national product, 117; inflation, 117; international trade, 110, 111*; prices, 115*, 117; purchases from Fund, 141*, 144*; stabilization policies, 114, 115, 117; stand-by arrangements, 143*; wages, 117

    Venezuela—balance of payments and reserves, 113*, 178-79*; capital movements, 111; currency used in Fund transactions, 153*; export earnings, 111*; gold exploration, 128; international trade, 110, 111*

    Viet-Nam—balance of payments and reserves, 98*, 178-79*; export earnings, 100*; international trade, 100*

    Wages—industrial countries, 4; see also individual countries

    West African Monetary Union—balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 106; export earnings, 104*; international trade, 104*, 106

    Western Hemisphere—agricultural products, 110; balance of payments and reserves, 55*, 56, 110-11, 178-79*; capital movements, 110; commodity exports to industrial countries, 102*; economic developments, 110-17; export earnings, 102*, 111*; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 63*, 89; international trade, 50†, 89, 90f, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95*, 97*, 110, 111*; see also individual countries

    World Bank—see International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

    World Reserves—see Reserves, Gold and Foreign Exchange

    World Trade−43-54; industrial countries, 7; primary producing countries, 7-8, 89-94, 97*

    Yugoslavia—balance of payments and reserves, 119, 177*; economic developments, 118-19; gold, foreign exchange, and reserve position in Fund, 119; international trade, 119; repurchases from Fund, 148*

    Zambia—agricultural products, 103; balance of payments and reserves, 103*, 178-79*; economic developments, 103-104; export earnings, 104*; fiscal policy, 104; international trade, 103, 104*; prices, 103; repurchase from Fund, 148*; wages, 103

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