This paper presents key findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment of the Republic of Estonia. The Estonian financial sector is highly concentrated and foreign owned. Financial indicators suggest a sound banking sector, and show particular strength in asset quality and earnings. The paper reveals that the Estonian banking sector has significant vulnerabilities from its real-estate lending. The rapid expansion of the banking sector has been funded, to a large extent, by short-term foreign borrowing from parent banks, making Estonia vulnerable to a disruption in international financial markets.