The IMF Working Papers series is designed to make IMF staff research available to a wide audience. Almost 300 Working Papers are released each year, covering a wide range of theoretical and analytical topics, including balance of payments, monetary and fiscal issues, global liquidity, and national and international economic developments.
The reputation of the aggregate demand function for money balances has plummeted since the mid-1970s, owing to the destabilizing effects of financial innovation and deregulation. There is, nonetheless, a renewed effort among economists to uncover stable relationships, a revival that reflects in part the development of new econometric approaches, especially those related to cointegration and error correction models. This paper examines the long-run properties of money demand functions in the large industrial countries, under the hypothesis that the long-run functions have been stable but that the dynamic adjustment processes are more complex than those represented in most earlier models. The results do broadly support this hypothesis, but for certain aggregates they also call into question some basic hypotheses about the nature of the demand function, including notably that of homogeneity with respect to the price level.