The IMF Working Papers series is designed to make IMF staff research available to a wide audience. Almost 300 Working Papers are released each year, covering a wide range of theoretical and analytical topics, including balance of payments, monetary and fiscal issues, global liquidity, and national and international economic developments.
A two-tiered exchange rate system can be interpreted as a set of separate taxes on money and other financial assets. If the official two-tiered exchange rate system coexists with a black market for foreign exchange, then there is implicit taxation of the international goods trade as well. This paper presents some evidence on the tax rates and tax revenues implicit in the exchange rate systems of The Bahamas (from 1978 to 1995), the Dominican Republic (from 1970 to 1984), and South Africa (from 1973 to 1995).