Since the early 1980s, well over 100 countries have experienced systemic bank insolvencies. An important innovation among the resulting policies for reestablishing bank soundness has been the reliance on market-based instruments and policies, in contrast to the largely non-market-oriented approach taken in the 1930s during the last big wave of banking crises. This paper surveys and assesses market-based policy instruments employed to overcome systemic bank problems. Considerations regarding the design and mix of instruments as well as cost-sharing arrangements are shown to be key aspects of effective bank restructuring. Selected country examples are used to illustrate best practices.