The IMF Working Papers series is designed to make IMF staff research available to a wide audience. Almost 300 Working Papers are released each year, covering a wide range of theoretical and analytical topics, including balance of payments, monetary and fiscal issues, global liquidity, and national and international economic developments.
Tax evasion is universal. It depends on the economic and tax structures, types of income, and social attitudes. The theory of tax evasion has limitations since it depends solely on the attitude toward risk with full information regarding the tax administration’s behavior. Methodologies for estimating tax evasion include predominantly estimating the underground economy, and comparing taxes declared with potential tax revenue calculated from national accounts. Actions in addressing tax evasion include use of withholding, presumptive and minimum taxes, selective auditing, penalties, and cross checks between taxes.