Inequality and Growth

Publication cover

 

Series: Books
Author(s): Benedict Clements, Ruud Mooij, Sanjeev Gupta, and Michael Keen
Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Published Date: September 2015
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513567754.071
ISBN: 9781513567754
This book analyzes fiscal policy and its link with inequality. Fiscal policy is the government's most powerful tool for addressing inequality. It affects households ‘consumption directly (through taxes and transfers) and indirectly (via incentives for work and production and the provision of public goods and individual services such as education and health). An important message of the book is that growth and equity are not necessarily at odds; with the appropriate mix of policy instruments and careful policy design, countries can in many cases achieve better distributional outcomes and improve economic efficiency. Country studies (on the Netherlands, China, India, Republic of Congo, and Brazil) demonstrate the diversity of challenges across countries and their differing capacity to use fiscal policy for redistribution. The analysis presented in the book builds on and extends work done at the IMF, and also includes contributions from leading academics.

 

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Series: Books
Author(s): Martin Schindler, Helge Berger, Bas Bakker, and Antonio Spilimbergo
Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Published Date: April 2014
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484304464.071
ISBN: 9781484304464
Five years after the onset of the global financial crisis, Europe's economy is still fragile. Notwithstanding recent positive signs amid calmer financial markets, medium-term growth is likely to remain frail owing to continuing weaknesses and vulnerabilities at the country level and in the fabric of European institutions and banks, especially in the euro area. In addition, unemployment in many countries has reached very high levels. The IMF research collected in this volume provides a number of guideposts that offer an opportunity for stronger and better-balanced growth and employment in Europe after what has been a long and dismal period of crisis.

 

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Series: Departmental Papers
Author(s): Lone Engbo Christiansen, Huidan Lin, Joana Pereira, Petia Topalova, and Rima Turk
Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Published Date: March 2016
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513562513.087
ISBN: 9781513562513
With an aging population and declining productivity growth, Europe faces serious challenges to raising its output growth. Adding to these challenges are the various gender gaps in the labor market. Despite significant progress in recent decades, there are still fewer women than men participating in Europe's labor market, and women are more likely to work part time. Furthermore, a smaller share of women reaches the top rungs of the corporate ladder. Could greater gender equality in the labor market help mitigate the slowdown in Europe's growth potential? Against this backdrop, this paper investigates the drivers of female labor force participation in Europe as well as what effects greater gender diversity in senior corporate positions might have for Europe's economic performance. Reexamining the factors driving women's labor force participation is particularly important because in many European countries the process of closing the gender gap has stalled despite greater gender equality in human capital investment, declining birth rates, changing social norms, and equal legal access to employment opportunities. Investigating whether firm performance could be improved if women held a greater share of senior positions is also essential given that the empirical evidence from past research into this question has been inconclusive.

 

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